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city (1990 pop. 9,643), seat of Hempstead co., SW Ark. Hope is a commercial center and a distribution point for an agricultural region. Its industries include food processing, printing, and the making of machinery and apparel. The city was the boyhood home of President Bill Clinton.


See also Optimism.
Hopelessness (See DESPAIR.)
emblem of optimism; steadfastly secured the soul in adversity. [N.T.: Hebrews, 6:18–19]
traditional representation of hope. [Flower Symbol-ism and Heraldry: Jobes, 341]
Emigrants, The
shows Norwegians in Dakota wheatlands striving for better life. [Nor. Lit.: The Emigrants, Magill I, 244–246]
flowering almond
symbol of spring; blooms in winter. [Flower Symbolism: Jobes, 71]
Great Pumpkin, the
awaited each Halloween by Linus. [Comics: “Peanuts” in Home, 542]
symbol of optimism. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 174; Kunz, 328]
Iceman Cometh, The
“The lie of the pipe dream is what gives life.” [Am. Lit.: The Iceman Cometh]
Of Mice and Men
portrays a philosophy that humans are made of hopes and dreams. [Am. Lit.: Of Mice and Men]
God’s assurance He would not send another great flood. [O.T.: Genesis, 9:12–16]
symbol of optimism. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 177; Kunz, 326]


1. Anthony, real name Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins. 1863--1933, English novelist; author of The Prisoner of Zenda (1894)
2. Bob, real name Leslie Townes Hope. 1903--2003, US comedian and comic actor, born in England. His films include The Cat and the Canary (1939), Road to Morocco (1942), and The Paleface (1947). He was awarded an honorary knighthood in 1998
3. David (Michael). born 1940, British churchman, Archbishop of York from 1995


A functional programming language designed by R.M. Burstall, D.B. MacQueen and D.T. Sanella at University of Edinburgh in 1978. It is a large language supporting user-defined prefix, infix or distfix operators. Hope has polymorphic typing and allows overloading of operators which requires explicit type declarations. Hope has lazy lists and was the first language to use call-by-pattern.

It has been ported to Unix, Macintosh, and IBM PC.

See also Hope+, Hope+C, Massey Hope, Concurrent Massey Hope.


[R.M.Burstall, D.B.MacQueen, D.T.Sanella, "HOPE: An experimental applicative language", Proc. 1980 Lisp conf., Stanford, CA, p.136-143, Aug 1980].

["A HOPE Tutorial", R. Bailey, BYTE Aug 1985, pp.235-258].

["Functional Programming with Hope", R. Bailey, Ellis Horwood 1990].
References in periodicals archive ?
Her website talks about hopelessness, but what people here need is hope for the future.
Depression and hopelessness seem to be the two most common psychological factors driving inmates to death.
It turns out insomnia can lead to a very specific type of hopelessness and hopelessness by itself is a powerful predictor of suicide," he said.
Likewise, we hypothesized the opposite pattern of relations between hopelessness and problem and health behaviors.
It is against this backdrop that the present study aimed to explore the relationship between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in a patient cohort recently diagnosed as HIV positive.
Hopelessness is the most prevailing sensation through all that.
And here is a key point: hopelessness is, after all, a secondary emotion that covers deeper fear, confusion, and hurt.
The present study approached hopelessness as a possible culturally specific response to a unique sociopolitical context in which acculturative stress can surface in relation to, as well as independent of, more traditional psychiatric diagnoses such as depression.
Bishop Nereo Odchimar, president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) said that despite poverty, misery and other social ills, the triumph of Jesus' resurrection should prevail over feelings of doubt or hopelessness.
5) Individuals with active behavioural coping strategies are likely to have fewer mood disturbances, a better quality of life (6) and a reduction in risk-taking behaviour, (7) whereas individuals with inadequate and avoidant coping styles are likely to have higher levels of emotional stress and increased feelings of hopelessness or negative expectations.
However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale.
Greater insight is related to improved course of schizophrenia [1], improved social functioning [2-3], decreased rates of rehospitalization, and improved treatment adherence [4-5] but also to greater hopelessness, depressive symptoms [1,6], and suicide risk [7-8].