horizon problem


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horizon problem

See inflation.

horizon problem

[hə′rīz·ən ‚präb·ləm]
(astronomy)
The problem of explaining the observed uniformity of the universe, and in particular of the cosmic background radiation, when, according to the standard big-bang theory, sources of radiation coming from opposite directions in the sky were separated by manyfold the horizon distance at the time of emission, and thus could not possibly have been in physical contact.
References in periodicals archive ?
com/light-may-have-outpaced-gravity-early-universe-researchers-say-2450790) horizon problem , which deals with the fact that the universe has a uniform temperature even though heat-carrying particles would not have had enough time to reach all the corners of the cosmos.
Through an experiment, it addresses performance in incentive contracts in the presence of the horizon problem, suggesting that economic profit helps mitigating the problem of managerial myopia in the long term.
For large corporations with actively traded stock, such market mechanisms help resolve the horizon problem.
Inflation also solved the horizon problem, or how very distant regions on opposite sides of the sky today can look nearly alike even though in an uninflated Big Bang, nothing can ever have had any common influence on them at all.
The short time horizon problem is the tendency to extrapolate whatever is going on recently into the indefinite future, and making decisions accordingly.
While Obama's plan wouldn't grant any new leases until 2012, the Deepwater Horizon problem is casting a long shadow over the public comment process now going on in Virginia and other coastal states otherwise ready to sign on the dotted line for exploratory wells to go into their offshore waters.
Inflation is not needed because there does not exist the horizon problem.
This issue is often avoided by representing the investment decision as an infinite horizon problem, but this is not very realistic.
Indeed, opportunistic reductions in R&D spending become more likely when: (1) the CEO approaches retirement (Dechow and Sloan 1991)--the horizon problem, and (2) the firm faces a small earnings decline of a small loss (Baber et al.
I take it that Earman's attempt at deflating the horizon problem in GTR is mirrored by Arthur Fine's treatment of quantum correlations of particles in Bell-type experiments as 'natural' because fundamental (Fine [1989]).
In such an infinite horizon problem, the optimal solution path, if it exists, must converge toward a steady state path in which [k.
Among these are utility bonuses, from self management (Ireland, 1981) and the well-known Furubotn-Pejovich effect or horizon problem (Furubotn and Pejovich, 1970; Jensen and Meckling, 1979).