They are all specified from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) during retina development in an ordered fashion that retinal ganglion cells (GC) are born first, followed by photoreceptor cells (PRC), amacrine cells (AC), horizontal cells
(HC), and lastly by bipolar cells (BC) and Muller glial cells (MC) (Figure 4(a)) [10, 25].
(a) Comparison of heat flux in horizontal cells
. (b) Comparison of heat flux in vertical cells.
The intervening layers incorporate several types of cell with large dendritic arbors, divided into horizontal cells
that control for different illumination conditions and feedback to the receptor and bipolar cells and amacrine cells that feed into the center-surround organization of the Retinal Ganglion Cells.
Serial 10 [micro]m cryosections were evaluated for the expression of PKC[alpha] (rod bipolar cells), iGluR4 (OFF bipolar cells), mGluR6 (ON bipolar cells), GFAP (activated Muller cells), calretinin (all amacrine cells), calbindin (horizontal cells
), and Bassoon (synaptic ribbon).
Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute in California, US, focused on amacrine and horizontal cells
in mice two types of neuron involved in the visual signalling pathway.
Photoreceptors (rods and cones), horizontal cells
, bipolar and ganglion cells showed positivity for the Anti-Otx2 antibody, on the contrary of Muller cells.
Different studies have shown that, in the retina, Isl1 is expressed in mature and differentiating ganglion, amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells
, suggesting that it plays a pivotal role in the maturation of these cell types in fish [9-11], reptiles , birds [13-21], and mammals [22-28].
In the PNAS article, they demonstrated a nearly two-fold variation in the number of interneurons called horizontal cells
. In the IOVS article, they report a conspicuous variation in the number of cone photoreceptors.
Although the possibility remains that zinc exerts a direct effect on calcium channels, its effect on transmitter release may derive from its ability to modulate the hemichannel currents on horizontal cells
at the photoreceptor synapse.
THE ROLE OF GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID IN SYNAPTOGENESIS BETWEEN HORIZONTAL CELLS
AND PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS IN THE MAMMALIAN RETINA.