Rather, it often ascends as a plume or a pulse, and horizontal shear
around the edges of the updraft can roll up vortices.
This is likely attributable to two phenomena: (1) unusually low horizontal shear
at the outflow level, particularly to the north, that enabled the storms, during their intensification phases, to build up their own low-potential-vorticity (PV) dome, and (2) low environmental resistance at the outflow level that allows a strong divergent outflow to expand the outflow dome laterally in all directions equally.
Evaluation of Shear Connector by Horizontal Shear
The fifth wall is subjected to a constant velocity to apply horizontal shear
loading, with the horizontal displacement monitored as the shear displacement.
Caption: Figure 9: Fixed centrode of upper shear blade and lower horizontal shear
The TI soil layer is determined by the shear modulus in plane normal to axis of symmetry [G.sup.L.sub.hi], horizontal shear
modulus, the shear modulus in planes normal to plane of transverse isotropy [G.sup.L.sub.vi], vertical shear modulus [32, 33], and the damping ratio [[zeta].sup.L.sub.i] (i = 1 ~ N).
A second actuator was used to apply a horizontal shear
force T at mid height of the wall specimen.
Where [N.sub.1] is the number of shear connectors required, [V.sub.h] is horizontal shear
force in Kips, [Q.sub.n] is nominal shear resistance of a connector in Kips, Asc is concrete transversal area in [in.sup.2]; [f.sub.c] is concrete resistance to compression after 28 days in ksi; [E.sub.c] is concrete elasticity module in ksi; and [F.sub.u] is the connector minimal tensile resistance in ksi.
The role of the bracing is multi purpose in resisting the horizontal shear
, reducing the shear lag in the flange column axial forces and hence making the whole cross section of the building structure stiffer against lateral load bending and helping to equalize the gravity load stresses in the column (Tang, Yin 2007).
All data regarding the test (horizontal shear
force, shear, and normal displacement) were collected by a computerised data logging system.
The horizontal shear
strength was determined with 72 by 40 by 12-mm (L by W by T) specimens according to JAS SE-11 (Anonymous 2003); the force was applied perpendicular to the adhesive layer with a three-point device.