However, the mode of transmission could be uncoupled from that of reproduction, for example by loss of ascospore formation but maintenance of horizontal transmission
hemionud), or elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) present a risk for horizontal transmission
The relative importance of horizontal transmission
of parasites is a major factor affecting the evolution of parasite virulence (Ewald 1988, 1991a,b, 1994; Bull et al.
Elasticity analysis of the 4 virus transmission pathways in the tree-hole/tiger model indicated that, in most scenarios, the pathway that contributes most to disease spread is horizontal transmission
by tree-hole mosquitoes (Figure 3).
Because seroconversion was confirmed in only 2 animals, horizontal transmission
within the group of 194 cats is unlikely.
During the second outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, probable horizontal transmission
among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo.
of Candida parapsilosis candidemia in a neonatal intensive care unit.
None of the naive adults involved in the horizontal transmission
experiment acquired infection directly from its mate, despite that all inoculated animals remained bacteremic throughout the experiment.
First, bacteria maintained through a phase of horizontal transmission
(e.g., Rickettsia prowazekii), with transmission to other arthropod hosts often occurring through a vertebrate or plant intermediate host (infection of the intermediate host and new acquisition of infection follow from host feeding); second, bacteria that rarely show horizontal transmission
, but are maintained because they manipulate host reproduction.
These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission
and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents.
At the request of the US Preventive Services Task Force, Chou and colleagues recently conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing the horizontal transmission
of HIV infection.
High virulence may have many advantages but with respect to transmission it may not be beneficial as termites that are not intensely infected live longer and therefore provide greater opportunity to spread spores by horizontal transmission
(Kramm et al., 1982).