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Related to hornbeam: hop hornbeam




name in North America for two groups of trees of the family Betulaceae (birchbirch,
common name for some members of the Betulaceae, a family of deciduous trees or shrubs bearing male and female flowers on separate plants, widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. They are valued for their hardwood lumber and edible fruits and as ornamental trees.
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 family), native to the eastern half of the continent. Carpinus caroliniana, also called blue beech and water beech, has smooth gray bark. The hop hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, has thin, narrowly ridged, light-brown bark. The strong, heavy wood of both species is used for tool handles, mallets, and vehicle parts. Many valuable hardwood timber trees of other families are called ironwood, especially in Australia and in the Old World tropics. Hornbeams are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Fagales, family Betulaceae.



(Carpinus), a genus of deciduous trees, more rarely bushes, of the filbert family. The trunk has a smooth gray bark, and the leaves are regular, simple, and double-toothed. The blossoms are dioecious and sometimes monoecious. The staminates have hanging catkins of bracteal scales and no perianths. The pistillates have small-blossomed crown catkins. The fruit is a one-celled monospermous nut with a leaf-like cupule. There are about 50 species in Europe, East Asia, and North America (which has one species). In the USSR there are five genera, which are found in the western European part, the Crimea, the Caucasus, and the southern part of Primor’e Krai. They grow mainly in two stories and in the underbrush of broadleaf forests. Hornbeams grow well in moist, loose, rich soils, but they will not tolerate marshy or acid conditions. Some types are found in dry lime-soil locations and on mountain slopes. They are used as ornamental trees in gardens and parks. The heavy, hard wood is used in the production of loom shuttles, musical instruments, and other objects, as well as in machine building.

The most common species are the European hornbeam (C. betulus) and the Caucasian hornbeam (C. caucasicus). These trees reach 20–30 m; their leaves are ovate or oblong-ovate and pointed. The nut is in a three-lobed bract. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are 20 years old and produce a crop of 1–1.5 tons per hectare. They are resistant to cold and bear pruning well. The eastern hornbeam, or little hornbeam (C. orientalis), grows in the Crimea and the Caucasus. It is a bush or small tree that has smaller leaves than the other species and an unlobed cupule on the fruits.


Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.



Any tree of the genus Carpinus in the birch family distinguished by doubly serrate leaves and by small, pointed, angular winter buds with scales in four rows.


1. any tree of the betulaceous genus Carpinus, such as C. betulus of Europe and Asia, having smooth grey bark and hard white wood
2. the wood of any of these trees
References in periodicals archive ?
As sessile oak is less shade tolerant and competitive than both hornbeam and Hungarian oak in young stands, its mortality was much higher and the species composition on both number of trees and basal area had changes in favor of the associated but less valuable tree species.
During winter, presence of marcescent leaves (senescent leaves still attached to the branches), on beech, hornbeam, and common oak is a striking phenomenon of hardwood forests in northern Europe.
Eddie leaned into the hedge, fists gripping tufts of hornbeam.
The hornbeam tree was chosen because of its links with World War One.
He also operated Hornbeam Farms in Sterling, where he and his wife sold plants.
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Any hedge that's going to take the force of the wind needs to be a tough customer, so you will have to look at robust British natives, such as beech and hornbeam.
A wide variety of trees, including Camperdown elm, Bunya-Bunya and Hornbeam, grace the estate's gardens and expansive meadows.
For land described as barren, the estimated numbers of traditional forest trees were impressive: 12,000 American hornbeam (ironwood), 9,000 red maple, 8,000 oaks of nine different species, 6,000 sweet gum, 3,000 black locust, 1,500 hickories, 1,200 willow, 1,000 birch, 500 American chestnut, and 300 flowering dogwood, to name a few.
The chopping board is made of hornbeam, the same type of wood used by French artisans to produce professional butcher blocks.
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