horned lizard


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Related to horned lizard: Desert horned lizard

horned lizard

or

horned toad,

broad, flat-bodied lizards of the genus Phrynosoma, found in arid regions from extreme SW Canada to Guatemala. There are several species in the United States W of the Mississippi. The body is 3 to 5 in. (7.6 to 12.7 cm) long; it has a short, thin tail, a short neck, and short legs. There are spines on the head, sides, and back. Horned lizards are protectively colored, usually in dull grays and browns. They feed on insects, especially ants, and are often found buried in the sand, with only their heads exposed. In some species the female lays eggs; in others the eggs are incubated internally and the young are born alive. When alarmed, members of some species eject a thin stream of blood from the nictitating membrane of the eye for a distance of several feet. Horned lizards are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Reptilia, order Squamata, family Iguanidae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree.
In particular, the number of species in California could be substantially underestimated because even well studied groups like horned lizards are likely to be comprised of multiple cryptic species, according to McGuire.
This study contributes to the knowledge of horned lizard ecology.
while this may be attributed to sampling error, it is noteworthy that this species of horned lizard inhabits mainly grassland to forested areas of cooler temperatures and higher elevations slightly north and south of Fowlkes Cave (Gehlbach and Holman, 1974; Conant and Collins, 1991; Dixon, 2000).
Comments concerning the following categories were noted and tabulated: blood-squirting behavior, interactions with domestic animals, fire ants, harvester ants, land-use, interactions with other wildlife, pesticide use, resurgence in horned lizard populations, and horned lizard population trends.
The current status and future prospects of the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)in Texas.
However, foraging at entrances to colonies may be disadvantageous to horned lizards if risks of injury or predation are greater at entrances to colonies than locations where ants are more dispersed.
Integumental water movement and rate of water ingestion during rain harvesting in the Texas horned lizard. Phrynosoma cornutum.
Howard (1974) summarized reproductive characteristics for each species of horned lizard in the United States and identified flat-tailed horned lizards as able to breed within their first year, with adults capable of multiple clutches, and with the smallest potential reproductive capacity.
Notes on the oecology and life-history of the Texas horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum.
The Coast Horned Lizard (CHL) is found in California coastal and inland regions from sea level to 8000 feet (2348m), hence from grasslands and Coastal Sage Scrub (CSS) vegetation to pine forest (Jennings, 1988).
* When attacked, the desert horned lizard swells in size and squirts blood from its eyes.