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see artilleryartillery,
originally meant any large weaponry (including such ancient engines of war as catapults and battering rams) or war material, but later applied only to heavy firearms as opposed to small arms.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a type of artillery gun for directing plunging fire at covered targets. Howitzers are part of troop artillery (field artillery in foreign armies). They have a caliber of 100 mm or more, a relatively short barrel (from 15 to 30 calibers), a multisection charge, a range of fire of up to 17 km, and a relatively high rate of fire—a round every other minute or every minute to six rounds per minute depending on the caliber. Most modern howitzers are self-propelled; the old systems use mechanical traction.

The first howitzers were built in Europe in the 15th century (Italy and Germany) and were used for firing stone-filled canisters. In the second half of the 16th century howitzers began firing explosive shells. In Russia the first howitzers were built in the middle of the 16th century. They were called gakovnitsy, gaufnitsy, and gafunitsy. In the 1760’s Russia developed longer howitzers, which were named unicorns. The change from smoothbore to rifled guns in the 1860’s led to the building of rifled howitzers. The greater use of field fortifications in the wars in the second half of the 19th century increased the need for howitzers. They were widely used in all armies in the two world wars. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the highest performance indexes were displayed by the Soviet 122-, 152-, and 203-mm howitzers.


Kirillov-Gubetskoi, I. M. Sovremennaia artilleriia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1933.
Istoriia otechestvennoi artillerii, vol. 1, books 1-3; vol. 2, book 4; vol. 3, books 7-8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1959-66.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A complete projectile-firing weapon with a bore diameter greater than 30 millimeters, and a length shorter than a gun of the same caliber; maximum angle of velocity is about 65°; used to deliver curved fire with projectiles of lower muzzle velocities than those from the gun.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The 'K9 Vajra-T' Howitzer Program involves delivery of 100 systems in 42 months with an associated Engineering Support Package (ESP) covering spares, documentation and training and Maintenance Transfer of Technology (MToT) to the Army Base Workshop to support the Howitzer regiments throughout their life cycle.
The platform can transfer twelve rounds-per-minute to the K-9155mm self-propelled howitzer. This is accomplished under armour and even in darkness and adverse weather with accompanying ammunition inventory tracking and management.
BAE Systems is partnering with Indian private sector defense company Mahindra Defence Systems for the assembly of 120 ultralight howitzers, while the remaining 25 guns will be supplied within the next three years.
-Var of artillery fires are being made by the Fyrtyna Howitzer Systems
Despite the lack of necessary documents, Maningding said Iriberri and the others allowed the entry into the country of the howitzer ammunition through the Port of Subic in Zambales.
The M198 Howitzers will be of the most use to the Army.
He continued working from home, continued from home, continued searching for the next searching for the next howitzer, and continued howitzer, and continued guiding his team with guiding his team with INSIGHT and integrity.
But now there's a new tire assembly, NSN 2530-01-626-2559, designed to prevent broken tire stems and keep your howitzer in the game.
The Ministry of Defence has been looking for "air mobile artillery" but the need is for an ultralight howitzer capable of being air-lifted by a Chinook helicopter up to a height of 18,500 ft either in the hold or under-slung.
HENDERSON'S HOWITZER ZAYNAR: He's owned by the The Men In Our Position syndicate - bookie Victor Chandler is the leader of the 'Men'.
Preedy also said the price of one howitzer is approximately $3 million and its customers are primarily the US Army, US Marine Corps, Canada and Australia.
It can be fired from either the M777A2 Joint Lightweight Howitzer or the M109A6 Paladin Self-Propelled Howitzer.