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the name given during the Middle Ages to the region between Dubrovnik and the Neretva River. The earliest surviving reference to Hum dates from the 10th century and describes the region as subject to the Serbian prince Mihajlo Višević. Late in that century the region became part of Samuil’s state, and in 1018 it fell under Byzantine control. Hum became part of Zeta in the second half of the 11th century, part of the Nemanja state in the late 12th century, and part of Bosnia in the 1320’s. Duke (herceg) Stepan Vukčić took control of Hum in the 1440’s. The duke’s dominions, of which Hum constituted a major part, became known as Hercegovina in the mid-15th century.