human papillomavirus


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human papillomavirus

(HPV), any of a family of more than 100 viruses that cause various growths, including plantar wartswart,
circumscribed outgrowth of the skin caused by a filterable virus that is readily transmitted. Warts may appear anywhere on the skin but are most common on the hands.
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 and genital warts, a sexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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. Genital warts, sometimes called condylomata acuminata, are soft and often occur in clusters. They can occur internally or externally, but even in the absence of warts the virus may be present and transmittable. Problems can result from untreated warts, which can grow quite large, or, in rare cases, from infection of an infant during delivery. In addition, about a dozen strains of HPV are associated with cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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 of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and mouth and throat, and HPV 16 has been shown to be associated with some forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (see AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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) and throat cancer.

Transmission of HPV strains is often the result of sexual contact, but it can also occur as the result of any skin-to-skin contact involving the mouth or genitals. Detectable warts can be or removed, usually by chemicals, freezing, or laser, but often recur. Intralesional alpha interferon has been effective in the treatment of genital warts. A vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2006 can protect a woman against those strains that cause most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts, and a study has shown it may also protect against related throat cancers. HPV vaccination is now recommended for both girls and boys beginning at 11 to 12 years of age.

human papillomavirus

[¦yü·mən ‚pap·ə′lō·mə ‚vī·rəs]
(medicine)
One of a family of more than 100 different viruses, most commonly spread via sexual contact, that cause warts on the hands and feet and in the genital area; several types are associated with premalignant and malignant changes in the cervix. Abbreviated HPV.
References in periodicals archive ?
Human papillomavirus detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iran.Eur J Intern Med.
Distinct risk factor profiles for human papillomavirus type 16-positive and human papillomavirus type 16-negative head and neck cancers.
p16 expression independent of human papillomavirus is associated with lower stage and longer disease-free survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
The role of Human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer and the impact on radiotherapy outcome.
Human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta-analysis.
Human papillomavirus infection in women attended at a cervical cancer screening service in Natal, Brazil.
Concordance of specific human papillomavirus types in sex partners is more prevalent than would be expected by chance and is associated with increased viral loads.
Human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma, leukoplakia, lichen planus, and clinically normal epithelium of the oral cavity.
Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
To the Editor: Cervical cancer, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa.

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