hyaline membrane disease


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infant respiratory distress syndrome

infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) or hyaline membrane disease (hīˈəlĭn, –līnˌ), respiratory distress syndrome of newborns, most common in infants born prematurely or by cesarean section or having a diabetic mother. The immature lungs of such infants cannot retain air; the air spaces empty completely and collapse after the first (and each succeeding) exhalation. Plasma leaks out of the lung tissue and coats the air spaces with a pink coating that is glassy, or hyaline, in appearance, hence the alternate name of the disease. Exhaustion, resulting from the extreme effort required to breathe, has been responsible for the death of many afflicted infants.

IRDS is caused by a lack, in the immature lung, of a surfactant agent; the substance, a mixture of lipids and proteins, contributes to the elasticity of lung tissue and stabilizes air passages so that the lung remains partly aerated after each exhalation. Intensive care, including supplemental oxygen and, in the case of severe symptoms, aid in breathing from a ventilator, can often bring infants through the first five or six days, after which most recover completely. An artificial surfactant may be introduced into the lungs if a newborn is at high risk for IRDS. If labor begins prematurely and cannot be halted and tests show that the fetus's lungs are immature, steroids administered to the mother a few days prior to labor may promote lung maturation.

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hyaline membrane disease

[′hī·ə·lən ′mem‚brān di‚zēz]
(medicine)
A disease occurring during the first few days of neonatal life, characterized by respiratory distress due to formation of a hyalinelike membrane within the alveoli.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the present study the case fatality rate of hyaline membrane disease was found to be the highest (50.8%).
Although it is no longer the most common cause of death in premature infants, about 3% of neonates die of hyaline membrane disease. However, the survival rate using modern intensive care procedures and treatments, including surfactant replacement therapy, approaches 90%.[3]
Morbidity in Hyaline Membrane Disease Morbidity N % Sepsis 22 14.66 Intraventricular 5 3.33 haemorrhage Patent ductus 21 14 arteriosus Pulmonary haemorrhage 8 5.33 Pneumothorax 12 8 Necrotising enterocolitis 13 8.66 Table VIII.
Hyaline Membrane Disease is the commonest cause of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly, in preterm infants.
Cardiac failure may be inseparable from hyaline membrane disease
Assisted ventilation for hyaline membrane disease. Indian Paediatr 1995;32(12):1267-1274.
Retinopathy was significantly more severe in babies with hyaline membrane disease and lower birth weight.
As a contrast to earlier studies the incidence of Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) is reduced, probably secondary to surfactant therapy and positive pressure ventilation.
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema with gas embolism in hyaline membrane disease. Am J Dis Chld 126:117, 1973.
37% cause of neonatal death was birth asphyxia, and 15% as hyaline membrane disease. 26% of neonates were
The major cause of death was Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) accounting to 36.5% of deaths.