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hybrid

(hī`brĭd), term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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). The mulemule,
hybrid offspring of a male donkey (see ass) and a female horse, bred as a work animal. The name is also sometimes applied to the hinny, the offspring of a male horse and female donkey; hinnies are considered inferior to mules.
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, the hybrid steer, and hybrid corn are examples of hybrids produced by breeders, but some animal species may cross-breed in the wild, as the gray wolf and coyote sometimes do. Hybridization between cultivars or varieties is often used in agriculture to obtain greater vigor or growth (heterosis). Hybrid vigor is achieved by crossing two inbred strains (see breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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). The first generation shows greatly increased vigor and a better yield primarily because many genes for recessive, often deleterious, traits from one parent are masked by corresponding dominant genes in the other parent.

Hybrid

 

sexual offspring produced by the crossing of two genotypically different organisms. The organisms crossed are called parental forms and are designated by the letter P. The maternal form or female individual is designated by the symbol ♀ , the paternal form or male individual by the symbol ♂, crossing by the symbol ×, hybrid offspring of the first generation by F with the subscript 1 (F1), second generation by F2, and so forth. For example, the F4 hybrid of ♀(beardless wheat) Bezostaia 1 × ♂ Belotserkovskaia 198 is the fourth generation of the hybrid in which the maternal form was Bezostaia 1 and the paternal form Belotserkovskaia 198. Hybrids may be spontaneous or artificial, intraspecific or remote. The following hybrids are distinguished in breeding corn: the intervarietal, when two varieties are crossed; the variety-line hybrid, when a variety is crossed with an inbred line (for example, to produce the hybrid Bukovinskii 3: ♀ Gloriia lanetskogo × ♂ VIR 44); the single cross hybrid, from the crossing of two strains (for example, the hybrid Slava is produced by crossing the inbred lines ♀ VIR 44 ×♂ VIR 38); and the double cross hybrid from crossing two simple hybrids (for example, the hybrid VIR 42 is produced by crossing ♀ Slava × ♂ Svetoch).

D. M. SHCHERBINA

hybrid

[′hī·brəd]
(genetics)
The offspring of parents of different species or varieties.
(petrology)
Pertaining to a rock formed by the assimilation of two magmas.
(science and technology)
Having two or more different characteristics or types of structure.

hybrid

Said of a plant produced by crossing two distant varieties or species.

hybrid

1. an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile
2. a vehicle that is powered by an internal-combustion engine and another source of power such as a battery
3. (of a vehicle) powered by more than one source
4. Physics (of an electromagnetic wave) having components of both electric and magnetic field vectors in the direction of propagation
5. Electronics
a. (of a circuit) consisting of transistors and valves
b. (of an integrated circuit) consisting of one or more fully integrated circuits and other components, attached to a ceramic substrate

Hybrid

A concurrent object-oriented language.

["Active Objects in Hybrid", O.M. Nierstrasz, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):243-253 (OOPSLA '87) (Dec 1987)].

hybrid

(1) Products that combine two or more different technologies. For data and software hybrids, see hybrid file, hybrid app and hybrid mobile app. For hardware hybrids, see hybrid laptop, hybrid computer, hybrid cloud, eSATA USB Hybrid Port, hybrid smartwatch, hybrid drive, hybrid circuit and hybrid microcircuit.

(2) Also known as a "termination" or "term set," a hybrid is a device that adapts a two-wire telephone line from a home or business into a four-wire trunk at the telco central office. Hybrids also exist within the telephone handset, converting the two-wire line into four wires: two for the speaker; two for the microphone. See echo cancellation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Interspecific mate choice and hybridism in the bufflehead, Bucephala albeola.
Let us see now the hybridism of Kojiki from a stylistic point of view.
This hybridism can be seen, for instance, in the game-like interactions in Tetra by Daniel Ruiz (http://www.
Spanish American Creole cultural identification and subjectivity has traditionally been bound with European-Enlightenment rationality as the first-half of the visit implies, yet as the visit progresses there occurs an inversion of this conception brought about by the ethnic/cultural hybridism of Delaura.
Furthermore, the variants that range from hybridism and syncretism to interculturality and the epistemic decoloniality of discourse fit within the paradigm of anthropophagic subjectivity.
Hybridism and syncretism within Islam came under attack in Durban and Natal from the 1970s with the rise of Deobandi revisionism and battles between Sunni and Tablighi Muslims (Vahed 2003 and 2005).
The idea of fractioning his creation is generated by a certain hybridism of his writings: the final character of Tractatus, the students' lecture notes and the current notes dictated to his friends or/and the dynamics of Philosophical Research.
1956) has created strikingly bold and brightly coloured iconic fibreglass sculptures, a personalized hybridism, conflating traditional religious sculptures and the contemporary urban fetish.
In The Origin of Species, Darwin wrote a chapter entitled Hybridism, in which he analyzed the causes of sterility in hybrids, not hybridization as a possible process of speciation.
It is the author's opinion that Balinese intellectuals and administrators need to develop a more dynamic idea of their culture, providing room for the increasing hybridism and plural character of their society as well as national and transnational forces.
This virtuoso cultural hybridism is a spontaneously creative
In many instances of chromosomal re-arrangement, aneuploidy, B chromosomes or hybridism, meiosis may proceed in a relatively normal fashion, but consequences for fertility are carried by the immature gametes and understanding of the gametes' mechanisms of maturation are central for the assessment of the impact of an altered meiosis on evolutionary processes.