The aim is to simulate the test depicted in Figure 4, wherein a vertical upward flow is experienced by the soil due to an imposed hydraulic gradient
. Small sized finite
where Z is the groundwater discharge, i is the natural hydraulic gradient
and T is the aquifer transmissivity, multiplication of the depth of the aquifer with hydraulic conductivity K, which is a measure of the rate at which water moves through a unit width of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient
Using argon or nitrogen leads to degassing in the experimental core that is subjected to a substantial hydraulic gradient
The hydraulic gradient
, volumetric flow rate, and uranyl ions concentration were monitored over time.
In relation to prior studies using column percolation tests, Yong (2001) adopted a hydraulic gradient
of the order of 55, Morandini and Leite (2015) adopted a hydraulic gradient
of the order of 50, based on recommendations of the standard ASTM D 4874 (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM], 1995) it could be used a hydraulic gradient
of 24, and Rojas, Consoli, and Heineck (2007) worked with a maximum hydraulic gradient
of approximately 92.
Pressure drop at the rated flow rate can vary, depending on where the cooling coil is located in the system hydraulic gradient
In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of pumping, vacuum drainage puts negative air pressure in the dewatering wells or drainage pipes to improve the hydraulic gradient
In previous studies, paste-like tailings slurry (PLTS) was simplified as a Bingham plastic fluid, whose flow properties were time-independent, and the existing empirical formulas for calculating the hydraulic gradient
of a paste-like flow were derived based on the time-invariant Bingham model .
WhereQ is the water discharge, K is the hydraulic conductivity of the soil (soil permeability), A isthe cross sectional flow area and i is the hydraulic gradient
which is given by the following equation:
It was determined that in the course filtration at higher hydraulic gradients
, clay mineral particles re-orientate parallel to the water flow lines, and, with the hydraulic gradient
dropping down, clay particles do not return to the initial position.
v--velocity of flow in the sample [m/s], i--hydraulic gradient [m/m] where hydraulic gradient