Thus, understandably, few were able to grasp concepts in water-related geometry such as Hydraulic Radius
and Rating Curve.
When unsaturated soils are considered as a set of simple capillary tubes, the flow can be defined by using flow medium rate, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic radius
, and permeability.
where d is the characteristic length (hydraulic radius
) of the idealized parallel smooth fracture.
In the indoor experiments we conducted, the hydraulic radius
differed from the mud depth, which we used to accurately calculate the results.
width, depth, hydraulic radius
, wetted perimeter, bed slope, side slope and velocity were determined using the selected approaches.
where: V is the cross-sectional average velocity (m/s); n is the Manning coefficient; R is the hydraulic radius
(m); S is the slope of the water surface or the linear hydraulic head loss.
where G = mass velocity of fluid (weight/second divided by the cross-sectional area, or lb/s x [ft.sup.2]); [f.sub.m] = mean friction factor; p = pressure; [v.sub.m] = mean specific volume; L = length of the pipe; [r.sub.h] = hydraulic radius
; and z = height.
Water flowing in an open channel runs in relatively complex manner due to various influencing factors, including slope steepness, surface roughness, and the so-called hydraulic radius
. The Manning equation , which was introduced about a century ago, attempts to capture the essential features of these factors.
The hydraulic radius
is the cross-sectional area of the flow divided by the channel wetted perimeter P (Figure 6-1).
The recent McGill research aimed to determine 3-D properties such as porosity, numerical density, pore shape, size, length, volume, hydraulic radius
, tortuosity and interconnectivity of soil macropores in undisturbed soil columns using X-ray CAT scanning.
Analysis Procedures * Capillary and slit dies * Hydraulic radius
and shape factors * Shape factors for various geometries * Computing shape factors for simple and composite geometries * Diverging and converging flows * Lubrication approximation * Numerical integration procedures * Extruder-die interaction
The approximation is that the steady-state pressure drop in a noncircular runner can be estimated by the pressure drop in a circular runner of the same length if the average velocities are the same and the hydraulic radius
of the noncircular runner equals the radius of the circular runner.