hydrazine


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Related to hydrazine: Methyl hydrazine

hydrazine

(hī`drəzēn'), chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. At ordinary temperatures it is a colorless, fuming liquid that has an ammonialike odor, but when frozen it forms white crystals. Hydrazine is corrosive and a strong reducing agent, but it is a weaker base than ammoniaammonia,
chemical compound, NH3, colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. It has a characteristic pungent, penetrating odor.
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. It reacts with water to form hydrazine hydrate, N2H4·H2O, a colorless liquid that boils at 120°C;. Hydrazine can be prepared (usually as the hydrate) by reacting ammonia with chloramine, NH2Cl, in the presence of glue or gelatin. The glue or gelatin inhibits decomposition of the hydrazine. Ammonium chloride is a byproduct. The chloramine may be prepared by reacting ammonia with a hypochlorite or chlorine gas. Hydrazine is also prepared by reaction of sodium hypochlorite with urea in the presence of glue or gelatin. Hydrazine is dibasic and forms many salts, e.g., mono- and di-hydrochlorides, mono- and di-nitrates, and two sulfates. The major use of hydrazine is as a rocket fuel because it burns rapidly, producing a large amount of heat. Hydrazine and its derivatives are also used in the manufacture of algicides, fungicides, insecticides, and agricultural chemicals; in rubber curing and the manufacture of foam rubber and plastics; in soldering fluxes; and as a corrosion inhibitor in boiler feedwater. Isoniazidisoniazid
, drug used to treat tuberculosis. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease.
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, a drug used in treatment of tuberculosis, is isonicotinic hydrazide.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hydrazine

 

(also called diamide), H2N—NH2, a colorless, hygroscopic liquid that fumes in air. Boiling point, 113.5° C; melting point, 2° C; density, 1,008 g/cm3 (at 20° C). Hydrazine is absolutely soluble in water and low alcohols. It is insoluble in hydrocarbons and other organic solvents. Aqueous solutions of hydrazine are basic (KHydrazine = 8.5 x 10−7). With acids it forms salts of hydrazone, such as N2H5C1 and N2H6C12. Hydrazine is characterized by a high dielectric constant (52.9 at 20° C) and is able to dissolve many inorganic salts.

Hydrazine is an endothermal compound; heat of formation ΔHHydrazine (1) = 50.24 kilojoules per mole (12.05 kilocalories per mole). Upon heating to 200°-300° C, hydrazine decomposes to N2 and NH3. In the presence of Fe203, it ignites at room temperature. A mixture of hydrazine vapor with air at a content of 4.67 percent or more by volume forms an explosive mixture. Liquid hydrazine is not sensitive to impact, friction, or detonation. It is toxic; the maximum permissible concentration in air is 0.0001 mg/l. Hydrazine is produced by oxidation of NH3 or urea by hypochloride. It is used in organic synthesis, as a component of liquid rocket fuels, and in the production of plastics, cured rubber, insecticides, and explosives.

REFERENCE

Audrieth, L., and B. Ogg. Khimiia gidrazina. Moscow, 1954. (Translated from English.)

V. S. LAPIK

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

hydrazine

[′hī·drə‚zēn]
(inorganic chemistry)
H2NNH2 A colorless, hygroscopic liquid, boiling point 114°C, with an ammonialike odor; it is reducing, decomposable, basic, and bifunctional; used as a rocket fuel, in corrosion inhibition in boilers, and in the synthesis of biologically active materials, explosives, antioxidants, and photographic chemicals.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Reaction of DHPMs Esters 4a-h with Hydrazine Hydrate in Ethanol.
(The symbols are as follows: red circle = C healthy rats; brown circle = M liver-injured rats induced by hydrazine at 24 h postdosing; and blue circle = FM liver-injured rats induced by hydrazine at 48 h postdosing.) S4 Fig: visualization of the discriminatory powers of potential biomarkers.
Permanganate, which is an oxidizing agent, was used together with hydrazine firstly to slow down the reaction between hydrazine, Sb[(C[H.sub.3]COO).sub.3], and [Na.sub.2]Se[O.sub.3], since this reaction is extremely fast at pH 10 and difficult to control, secondly to see the influence of permanganate in rod formation, and thirdly to see whether [Mn.sup.2+] could be incorporated into the matrix of [Sb.sub.2][Se.sub.3] as an [Sb.sub.2-x][Mn.sub.x][Se.sub.3] doped material, since hydrazine is capable of reducing [Mn.sup.7+] to [Mn.sup.4+] and possibly even to [Mn.sup.2+].
The antibacterial activities of all the synthesized (E)-1-benzylidene -2-(3-nitrophenyl) hydrazines are shown in Figure 2.
In the case of an equimolar or 2/1 ratio of protected hydrazine and benzyl bromide, relatively poor yields ranging from 13% to 30% were obtained at room temperature.
The study about the impacts of hydrazine on living organisms has become important in the country with the space activities development in engineering and technology [10-12].
Moreover, the neat TEA-[N.sub.2]O propellant produces vacuum specific impulses and density specific impulses 7.1% and 13.1% lower than traditional hydrazine propellant formulations, respectively.
All chemicals were of analytical grade and used without further purification: nickel chloride (Ni[Cl.sub.2] x 6[H.sub.2]O) from Fisher Scientific, 98% hydrazine hydrate ([N.sub.2][H.sub.4] x [H.sub.2]O) from Aldrich, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from EM Science.
Investigation of the optimum concentration of phenyl hydrazine for the spectrophotometric analysis of glucose Estimation of glucose was carried out as oxidized glucosazone which is a colored compound.
Hydrazine is highly toxic and can induce negative side effects when inhaled or through skin contact.
"Most of the hydrazine has been moved over to the Moni plant," Patsalis said adding that miniscule amounts remained in one of the out-of-bound units but this posed no health danger.
Aerojet has reportedly provided monopropellant hydrazine thrusters for every GPS satellite launched to date as well as complete propulsion systems for Boeing's GPS IIF.