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(hī'drəsĕf`ələs), also known as water on the brain, developmental (congenital) or acquired condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of body fluids within the skull. The congenital form may be associated with other abnormalities. The acquired form may follow meningitis or another cerebral inflammation or tumor. The accumulation of fluid causes compression of the brain and enlargement of the skull, sometimes with separation of bone structures. Paralysis and death may result or, at the least, mental retardation. Many forms of therapy, including surgery, have been attempted, but usually without much success in extreme cases.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



edema of the brain, an excessive increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.

The cause of hydrocephalus is either excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain or obstruction of its efflux from the ventricles of the brain, as a result of inflammatory processes, tumors, or other diseases leading to closing of the apertures through which the fluid escapes from the ventricles. Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by congenital syphilis and toxoplasmosis; acquired hydrocephalus originates (usually in early childhood) after meningitides, menin-goencephalitides, head traumas, intoxications, and other afflictions. The most common symptom of hydrocephalus in children is an enlarged skull. In places where the bones of the skull did not knit normally, rounded, pulsating protrusions may form. Frequently there is strabismus and nystagmus. Sometimes a reduction of vision and hearing, headaches, and nausea are observed. Intelligence is diminished. Treatment of hydrocephalus calls for the removal of the cause, sometimes by surgery. It can be prevented by the elimination of conditions injurious to the mother during pregnancy and the prevention of neuroinfections during childhood.


Arendt, A. A. Gidrotsefaliia i ee khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow,1948.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, hydrocephaly
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain because its normal outlet has been blocked by congenital malformation or disease. In infancy it usually results in great enlargement of the head
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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This study included 15 treatment-naive patients with communicating hydrocephalic (mean age = 9.76 [+ or -] 1.80 years; duration of illness = 1.77 [+ or -] 0.68 years; sex ratio = 6 female/9 male).
However moral and generous the atheist might be, I suspect he'd have a hard time comprehending how I felt about my hydrocephalic schoolmate.
In the hydrocephalic brain, we found that AQP4 and GFAP positivity was higher in the striatum, both in intensity and in number of cells marked than was seen in the control brain.
Changes in ventricular volume in hydrocephalic children following successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy.
Roales-Bujan et al., "Patterned neuropathologic events occurring in hyh congenital hydrocephalic mutant mice," Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol.
An earlier study has shown a logarithmic correlation between the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the distance from the lateral ventricles in hydrocephalic patients [1].
US indicated the fetus was hydrocephalic. The child was born with cognitive disabilities and will need lifelong care.
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Lehrer14 described an angiographic triad in tuberculous meningitis which included a hydrocephalic pattern, narrowing of the vessels at the base of the brain and narrowed or occluded small and medium sized vessels with scanty collaterals.
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