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(chemical engineering)
The reaction of adding hydrogen and the ‒CHO group to the carbon atoms across a double bond to yield oxygenated derivatives; an example is in the oxo process where the term hydroformylation applies to those reactions brought about by treating olefins with a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a cobalt catalyst.


An aldehyde synthesis process that falls under the general classification of a Fischer-Tropsch reaction but is distinguished by the addition of an olefin feed along with the characteristic carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In the oxo process for alcohol manufacture, hydroformylation of olefins to aldehydes is the first step. The second step is the hydrogenation of the aldehydes to alcohols. At times the term “oxo process” is used in reference to the hydroformylation step alone. In the hydroformylation step, olefin, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen are reacted over a cobalt catalyst to produce an aldehyde which has one more carbon atom than the feed olefin. As in the reaction below, the olefin conversion takes place by the addition of a formyl group (CHO) and a hydrogen atom across the double bond. See Fischer-Tropsch process

The aldehyde is then treated with hydrogen to form the alcohol. In commercial operations, the hydrogenation step is usually performed immediately after the hydroformylation step in an integrated system.

A wide range of carbon-number olefins, C2–C16, have been used as feeds. Propylene, heptene, and nonene are frequently used as feedstocks to produce normal and isobutyl alcohol, isooctyl alcohol, and primary decyl alcohol, respectively. Feed streams to oxo units may be single-carbon-number or mixed-carbon-number olefins.

The lower-carbon-number alcohols such as butanols are used primarily as solvents, while the higher-carbon-number alcohols go into the manufacture of plasticizers, detergents (surfactants), and lubricants.

References in periodicals archive ?
Different methods for introduction of OH groups in vegetable oil have been tried in different researches so far, like by hydroformylation [7, 8], hydrolysis [9], ozonolysis [10, 11], epoxidation [12, 13], microbial conversion [14], transesterification [15], etc.
As concrete model reaction, the hydroformylation of C8-C12-alkenes is currently considered to the corresponding aldehydes.
Two different reaction schemes are illustrated in Figure 2 and Figure 3 [14,15], where the common end-group forms of PEG-PLA derivatives include hydroformylation, propylene acylation, and amination [16].
Petrovic, ZS, Guo, A, Javni, I, Cvetkovic, I, Hong, DP, "Polyurethane Networks from Polyols Obtained by Hydroformylation of Soybean Oil.
In the first step, hydroformylation reaction is carried out under low pressure in the presence of rhodium catalyst (LP Oxo process).
Additionally, 1,3-PD is produced by chemical synthesis using two different courses: acrolein hydration or ethylene oxide hydroformylation (Paulo da Silva et al.
Rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation of kaurane derivatives: A route to new diterpenes with potential bioactivity.
Among specific topics are porous inorganic materials as potential supports for ionic liquids, the characterization and properties of ionic liquid at gas-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces, supported ionic liquid phase materials in hydroformylation catalysis, supported protic ionic liquids in polymer membranes for electrolytes on non-humidified fuel cells, and gas separation using supported ionic liquids.
They cover metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides to form carbon-carbon bonds, metal-catalyzed carbon-hydrogen bond and carbon-carbon bond formation, catalytic nucleophilic additions of alkynes, water-soluble hydroformylation catalysis, green catalytic oxidations, hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation, catalytic rearrangements and allylation reactions, alkene metathesis, and nanocatalysis.
These reactions and complex compounds can be employed in a very wide range of applications such as alkylation, isomerization, hydrocraking, polymerization, dimerization, oligomerization, acylation, acetylation, metathesis, copolymerization, hydroformylation, dehalogenation etc [11-15].
Guo, A, Demydov, D, Zhang, W, Petrovic, ZS, "Polyols and Polyurethanes from Hydroformylation of Soybean Oil.
Natural oil polyols (NOPs) can be prepared from fatty acid methyl esters derived from seed oils utilizing a novel hydroformylation technology.