Difficulties with the measurement of the first melt temperature are explained by the limited amount of hydrohalite
and ice that melt at the eutectic temperature (Te) of -21.2[degrees]C, in combination with a small inclusion size.
According to researchers, snow plow can now look smarter by equipping normal salt-spreading trucks with an "artificial intelligence" device, to get rid of a dangerous, invisible killer 'hydrohalite' on icy roads.
The experts have detected a problematic substance known as 'hydrohalite', which forms on icy roads that have already been treated.
Hydrohalite is normally left unremoved, as it does not respond to the conventional de-icing method of road surface salting and once formed, repeated salting will not remove it.
However, this method will not work when hydrohalite has been formed, exposing the public to a serious risk of road traffic accidents.
The team recreated the conditions under which the hydrohalite substance forms.
The following phase transition temperatures were measured during the microthermometric measurements: the eutectic temperature ([T.sub.e]) corresponding to the first visible melting, that is, the apparition of the first visible liquid from the solidified aqueous phase during heating; the ice-melting temperature ([T.sub.m]ice) corresponding to the final melting of solidified aqueous phase; the final melting temperature of hydrohalite ([T.sub.m]Hh); the final melting temperature of halite ([T.sub.m]Hl); and the total homogenization temperature ([T.sub.H]), with occur to the liquid phase (L) or to the vapour phase (V).
Hydrohalite melting was observed only in two fluid inclusions between -48.7 and -44[degrees]C.
Hydrohalite peritectic melting could not be observed in these fluid inclusions.
However, it was not possible to observe the hydrohalite melting in these fluid inclusions, principally because of their small size (<15 [micro]m on average), and therefore the salinity cannot be estimated directly in the [H.sub.2]O-NaCl-LiCl system and was only estimated by Raman spectrometry when measured (see below) or calculated in the [H.sub.2]O-NaCl system based on the [T.sub.m] ice measurement, as the best possible approximation.
The first melting temperatures ([T.sub.m]), melting temperature of hydrohalite ([T.sub.m,HH]), last ice-melting temperature ([T.sub.ice]), and the temperature of total homogenization ([T.sub.h]) have been measured in FIs hosted in dolomite, calcite, barite, sphalerite, and quartz.
When heated gradually, [T.sub.m] was followed by the melting of hydrohalite ([T.sub.m,HH]) and then last ice-melting temperature ([T.sub.ice]).