RAMS supplies a three-dimensional grid of atmospheric state variables (e.g., temperature, pressure) as well as microphysical information for all hydrometeors
, or types of cloud and precipitation particles (e.g., cloud droplets, ice crystals).
Rapid scans of the atmosphere and hydrometeor
classification, among other polarimetric radar capabilities, are critical for forecasting and prediction.
The atmosphere medium consists of gases such as [O.sub.2], [H.sub.2]O, C[O.sub.2], and other gases as well as hydrometeors
such as rain, clouds, and fog.
The vertical structure of the precipitation medium has been modeled with two layers of different depths, layer A starts from the ground with the existence of rain (raindrops with a water temperature of 20[degrees]C) and layer B with melting hydrometeors
at 0[degrees]C  as presented in Figure 2.
Therefore, if the hydrometeor
residence time is much smaller than the characteristic glaciation time, it is expected that virtually all hydrometeors
will remain in the liquid phase.
The peculiarity of these characteristics called for the investigation of the degree of interference due to hydrometeors
that could be encountered in a situation in which a satellite downlink signal is affected by the signal from a terrestrial microwave network operating at the same frequency as the satellite system in the subtropical region.
His topics are radio waves and the troposphere, propagation, reflection and interference, refraction and path delay, absorption, rain attenuation, and attenuation by hydrometeors
other than rain.
The free space losses, the excess losses due to the atmospheric gases, oxygen molecules, salt, and hydrometeors
(rain, snowflakes, fog, and clouds, etc) consist make the losses of the propagating electromagnetic wave ("excess" in this context means in excess of free--space loss) .
Following a historical overview of radiative transfer and microwave radiometry, the book covers atmospheric, terrestrial, and technical factors affecting the use of thermal microwave radiation in remote sensing applications, with chapters on the absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric gases, the interaction of solid and liquid hydrometeors
with microwave radiation, radiative-transfer modeling of the microwave surface emission, and dielectric properties of important materials found at the terrestrial surface.
Inclusion of Ice Phase of Hydrometeors
in Cloud Parameterization for Mesoscale and Largescale Models.
(1) Advances in weather radar include the incorporation of Doppler capability, which allows measurement of wind velocity, and the use of multiple polarizations, which enhance rainfall estimation and provide the ability to discriminate between types of hydrometeors
, such as hail versus rain.
* The onset and termination of any type of hydrometeors
(including precipitation) in the air are detected by sensing interruptions in its infrared optical beam.