Hydronephrosis


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Related to Hydronephrosis: hydroureter

hydronephrosis

[‚hī·drə·nə′frō·səs]
(medicine)
Accumulation of urine in and distension of the renal pelvis and calyces due to obstructed outflow.

Hydronephrosis

 

a disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the cavities of the kidneys, with subsequent anemia and the atrophy of renal tissue.

Hydronephrosis is the result of an impairment of urinary discharge from the renal pelvis (most often the dextral one). The disease is found most commonly in women between the ages of 20 and 40 and in children. Congenital hydronephroses develop when there are defects in the development of the urinary system; mechanical, when there is blockage of the renal pelvis or ureter by a calculus, tumor, or inflammatory cicatrix; dynamic, when there is damage to the neuromuscular apparatus of the renal pelvis and ureter; and traumatic, when there are wounds to the ureter or pressure on it from adhesions after a blunt injury. Disruption of the discharge of urine leads to distention of the renal pelvis and calyces and an increase in intrarenal pressure, as a result of which the blood vessels are constricted and the blood circulation in the kidney impaired. Atrophy of the renal parenchyma gradually develops. If treated in time, the organ may be restored. Usually hydronephrosis develops asymptomatically, but sometimes there are attacks of renal colic or dull pains in the region of the kidneys, blood in the urine (hematuria), and, when there is accompanying infection, pus in the urine (pyuria). Treatment is surgical.

REFERENCE

Abramian, A. Ia. “Gidronefroz i gidroureter.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po khirurgii, vol. 9. Edited by B. V. Petrovskii. Moscow, 1959.

V. G. TSOMYK and V. M. VERTEPOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Ultrasound screening during pregnancy has resulted in increasing recognition of foetal hydronephrosis. Depending on diagnostic criteria and gestation, the prevalence of antenatally detected hydronephrosis (ANH) ranges from 0.6 to 5.4%.
Of the preoperative parameters, preoperative eGFR and hydronephrosis rate were significantly higher in group 1 (p=0.012).
Hydronephrosis, a dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system of the kidney, is not a disorder in itself, but, it is a manifestation of congenital or acquired urinary tract obstruction.
These clinical results may indicate that hydronephrosis in children cannot be compared to hydronephrosis in acute urinary tract obstruction in adults caused by kidney stones with different effects on organ stiffness.
Results: Of 210 patients, hydronephrosis was unilateral in 91.8% of patients and bilateral in 8.1%.
Unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis was reported in 154 patients (89.0%).
CT imaging revealed left hydronephrosis due to intraluminal extension of a part of foreign material that looked like an IUD in the distal 1/3rd of the ureter (Figure 1).
"The teratologist review concluded no temporal association with CZP [certolizumab] exposure for the case of hydronephrosis, owing to evidence of anomalies on ultrasound prior to initiation of medication (during the third trimester); the possibility of an association could not be ruled out for the cases of anal fistula, accessory auricle, vesicoureteric reflux, talipes, and congenital heart disease," the researchers wrote.
(D) Axial images of the left renal pelvis illustrating clearance of the intra-luminal encrustations and resolution of the hydronephrosis post ureteroscopy and Holmium laser fragmentation.
(4) Detecting the degree of hydronephrosis during antenatal US can help in planning postnatal management.