Hyperemia

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hyperemia

[‚hī·pə′rē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
An excess of blood within an organ or tissue caused by blood vessel dilation or impaired drainage, especially of the skin.

Hyperemia

 

also plethora, an excess of blood in a tissue or organ. One may distinguish arterial and venous hyperemia. Arterial (active) hyperemia arises as a result of increased blood flow in the arteries owing to increased tonus of the vasodilator nerves or decreased tonus of the vasoconstrictor nerves. Among its causes are increased sensitivity of the blood vessels to physiological stimuli or the influence of extraordinary stimuli (such as bacterial toxins, high temperature, and products of tissue decomposition); in humans psychogenic factors (such as shame and anger) play a large role. Arterial hyperemia is characterized by dilatation of the arteries in the hyperemized area, elevation of temperature in the area, acceleration of blood flow, and reddening (for example, hyperemia of the face). It is accompanied by intensification of metabolic processes in the tissues and promotes the regeneration of tissues. Hemorrhages may occur during arterial hyperemia if there are pathological changes in the blood vessels. Arterial hyperemia is induced for therapeutic purposes by means of mustard plasters and cupping glasses. Venous (passive, static) hyperemia occurs when the outflow of blood along the veins is obstructed as a result of pressure on the venous wall (cicatrix, tumor, varicose dilatation of the veins, or edema), while the inflow remains unchanged or when there is a weakening of cardiac activity. Venous hyperemia is characterized by deceleration of blood flow to the point of complete stasis. Oxygen deficit develops in the tissues, the vascular walls become more permeable, and edema develops. Prolonged blood stasis and edema may lead to atrophy of the parenchyma of an organ.

V. A. FROLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
TBUT is also inversely correlated with limbal hyperaemia (R = - 0.341, p = 0.024), TMH (R = - 0.239, p = 0.04), and OSDI (R = - 0.350, p = 0.034).
Endothelium-dependent postocclusive reactive hyperaemia in the tested arm was induced by 5-minute ischemic test as described above.
Retinal microaneurysms were present in 5 (5.4%) cotton wool spots in 10 10.8%) retinal haemorrhages in 8 (8.6%) and optic disc hyperaemia in 1 (1.1%) patient (table- 2).
For example, high ICP associated with hyperaemia is typically associated with high Pbt[O.sub.2] and high transcranial Doppler flow velocities.
The influence of local skin heating and reactive hyperaemia on skin blood flow abnormalities in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD).
In our study, incidence of symptoms of vaginal candidiasis was vaginal discharge (100%), pain abdomen (100%), foul smelling (40%), itching (24%) and of signs was curdy white discharge (100%), foul smelling (40%) and hyperaemia (36%).
Table 1 Location of conjunctival hyperaemia can indicate the cause Hyperaemia location Possible causes Localised limbal Distress to neighbouring cornea, including infiltrative keratitis and contact lens-induced peripheral ulcer (CLPU) (13) Generalised limbal Hypoxia or solution reaction Temporal/nasal Exposure/dryness/inadequate blinking Palpebral Allergy and/or infection Generalised bulbar Allergy and/or infection Generalised bulbar Contact lens-induced red eye and limbal, with (CLARE), linked with overnight infiltrates, wear and gramnegative bacterial staining, severe contamination of contact discomfort lenses (14)
The onset of latex anaphylaxis in the operating room occurs 25-290 min after induction of anaesthesia, when latex gloves directly make contact with large surface areas within a body cavity (e.g., peritoneal, thoracic).4 In our case during the first operation, 20-25 min after the opening of abdomen, dyspnoea, nasal congestion and hyperaemia started soon after touching the uterus and pelvic tissues by powdered and latex gloves.
(7,16) A recent study has found that both cold compresses and artificial tears produce significant improvement in ocular surface temperature, conjunctival hyperaemia and ocular symptoms, with efficacy enhanced further when these steps are combined.
The most commonly reported side effects of Bimatoprost is conjunctival hyperaemia (i.e.
There was no statistically significant difference after 14 days of Blink-N-Clean eye drop use in the measurement of hyperaemia (Wilcoxon matchedpairs signed-ranks tests, p=0.16), LIPCOF (p=0.10), or corneal staining (p=0.64), compared with the baseline measurements (Table 2).
* To assess variation in cardiovascular response through reactive hyperaemia (RH) where RH = (peak blood flow-resting blood flow)/resting blood flow.