hypercharge


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Hypercharge

A quantized attribute, analogous to electric charge, introduced in the classification of a subset of elementary particles—the so-called baryons—including the proton and neutron as its lightest members. As far as is known, electric charge is absolutely conserved in all physical processes. Hypercharge was introduced to formalize the observation that certain decay modes of baryons expected to proceed by means of the strong nuclear force simply were not observed. See Electric charge

Unlike electric charge, however, the postulated hypercharge was found not to be conserved absolutely; the weak nuclear interactions do not conserve hypercharge—and indeed can change hypercharge by ±1 or 0 units.

When the known baryons are classified according to their electric charge and their hypercharge, they naturally group into octets in the scheme first proposed by M. Gell-Mann and K. Nishijima. The quarks, hypothesized as the fundamental building blocks of matter, must have fractional hypercharge as well as electrical charge; the simplest quark model suggests values of 1/3 and 2/3, respectively. See Baryon, Elementary particle, Quantum mechanics, Quarks, Unitary symmetry

hypercharge

[′hī·pər‚chärj]
(particle physics)
A quantum number conserved by strong interactions, equal to twice the average of the charges of the members of an isospin multiplet.
References in periodicals archive ?
PHOTO : The E9 Hypercharge 16.4-litre V8 Diesel engine - this version produces a hefty 900
where [LAMBDA] is the new physics scale responsible for the existence of the excited leptons, [[??].sub.[mu]v] and [B.sub.[mu]v] are the field strength tensors, g and g are the gauge couplings, f and f' are the scaling factors for the gauge couplings of SU(2) and U(1), [[sigma].sup.[mu]v] = i([[gamma].sup.[mu]][[gamma].sup.v] - [[gamma].sup.v][[gamma].sup.[mu]])/2 where [[gamma].sup.[mu]] are the Dirac matrices, [??] denotes the Pauli matrices, and Y is hypercharge.
The group U[(1).sub.Y] for weak hypercharge Y then reduces the symmetry to being gauge equivalent so that particles and antiparticles have the same positive mass.
It is backed by a 4,000mAh battery that uses Asus HyperCharge direct-charge technology, which is said to make the charging battery faster, and safer.
The resulting vertex takes the form bino-sfermion-fermion, L [contains] -[X.sub.L][[??].sub.L][bar.[chi]][P.sub.L]f - [X.sub.R][[??].sub.R][bar.[chi]][P.sub.R]f, where tree-level couplings, [X.sub.L,R] = [square root of 2] g'[Y.sub.L,R], are expressed in terms of the hypercharge assignment [Y.sub.L,R] of the fermion Weyl spinors.
The entire package is powered by a4,000mAh battery and the phone featuresAsus' HyperCharge direct-charge technology for faster, safer and cooler battery charging.
The gauge boson coupling to Higgs and [eta] (the equivalent of (4)) will be (neglecting hypercharge)
Asus has included innovations like Asus Aura RGB lighting and Asus HyperCharge direct-charge technology for faster, safer and cooler battery charging.
We also add an [SU(3).sub.c] (color) triplet, [SU(2).sub.L] singlet, [U(1).sub.Y] hypercharge 2/3, and vector-like quark (VLQ) U.
Other ROG Phone innovations include Asus Aura RGB lighting and Aura Sync support, plus Asus HyperCharge direct-charge technology for faster, safer and cooler battery charging.
There are broadly three classes of such models, namely, type I, type II, and type III seesaw models requiring involvement of right-handed neutrinos, a [SU(2).sub.L] triplet scalar with hypercharge Y = 2 and [SU(2).sub.L] hyperchargeless triplet fermions, respectively.
where [LAMBDA] is the new physics scale, [W.sub.[mu]v] and [B.sub.[mu]v] are the field strength tensors, [??] denotes the Pauli matrices, Y is the hypercharge, g and g' are the gauge couplings, and f and f' are the scaling factors for the gauge couplings of SU(2) and U(1); [[sigma].sup.[mu]v] = i([[gamma].sup.[mu]][[gamma].sup.v]- [[gamma].sup.v][[gamma].sup.[mu]])/2 with [[gamma].sup.[mu]] being the Dirac matrices.