In order to obtain hyperimmune serum
(HIS), the vaccine strain CHIKV 181/25 (13, 14) was propagated in Vero cells.
When Immunoblotting was performed with the hyperimmune serum
A 100 [micro]l of hyperimmune serum
diluted with coating buffer was pipetted into wells of microtitre plate (96 well Immulon 4[R] Dynatech labs, Chantily, USA) and incubated at 4[degrees]C overnight and thereafter frozen to -20[degrees]C.
We developed the scheme of immunization of animal--producers, depending on the dose, the multiplicity, and the injection site and produced a multivalent antileptospirosis hyperimmune serum
for immunotherapy of animals.
There are two ways of doing prophylaxis against HS, i.e., active immunization done by vaccination, passive immunization achieved by transfer of antibodies, which is further typed into natural arising from maternal antibodies and artificial induced by inoculation of hyperimmune serum
samples were established by using a 4-fold vaccination of pigs with antigens of H1N1 vaccine strains (A/New Jersey/8/1976, A/sw/Netherlands/25/1980, A/sw/IDT/Re230/1992, A/sw/Haselunne/IDT2617/2003), and a strain of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (A/Hamburg/7/2009) by using Freund adjuvant.
Homologous hyperimmune serum
specimens were produced in BALB/c mice as previously described (8).
To develop the WU ELISA and the KI ELISA, we used as positive controls 2 convalescent serum samples from a child known to be infected with WUPyV and rabbit hyperimmune serum
for WUPyV VP1 or KIPyV VP1, and we used as negative controls rabbit preimmune serum and serum derived from pediatric patients ([less than or equal to] 3 years of age).
A [greater than or equal to]32-fold reduction from homologous titers of all hyperimmune serum
used was noted with WsAk08.
tsutsugamushi is characterized by a wide antigenic diversity, and isolates are conventionally classified on the basis of reactivity with hyperimmune serum
against prototype strains (e.g., Karp, Kato, Gilliam, Kawasaki, Kuroki, or Shimogoshi).
For immunohistochemical detection of TBEV antigens, a noncommercial rabbit polyclonal hyperimmune serum
(dilution 1:1,000) was used as described previously (3).
For the microneutralization assay, 50 [micro]L of heat-inactivated human and animal control hyperimmune serum
samples were serially twofold diluted in 10% FBS-DMEM in triplicate wells.