hyperinsulinism


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Related to hyperinsulinism: Hyperinsulinemia

hyperinsulinism,

presence in the system of an above-normal amount of insulininsulin,
hormone secreted by the β cells of the islets of Langerhans, specific groups of cells in the pancreas. Insufficiency of insulin in the body results in diabetes. Insulin was one of the first products to be manufactured using genetic engineering.
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, the substance secreted by the pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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 and needed by the body to utilize sugar. An increased amount of insulin in the body results in below-normal amounts of sugar in the system, giving rise to such symptoms as headache, dizziness, weakness, and emotional instability. In severe cases there may be convulsions, coma, and death. The cause of oversecretion of insulin may be organic, i.e., a tumor of the pancreas, impaired liver function, or endocrine disorders, or it may be functional, e.g., unusual muscular exertion, pregnancy, or lactation. In diabetics, hyperinsulinism is known as insulin shock and may occur from overdosage with insulin in the course of treatment. Where there is some organic cause for hyperinsulinism, surgery may be required to eliminate it. Functional hyperinsulinism and insulin shock are treated by dietary measures designed to bring the insulin-sugar ratio into better balance.

hyperinsulinism

[‚hī·pər′in·sə·lə‚niz·əm]
(medicine)
Condition caused by abnormally high levels of insulin in the blood.
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However, brain damage can occur in up to 50 per cent of children with hyperinsulinism if their condition is not diagnosed or if treatment is ineffective.
9,14,15) Finally, our experiment dealing with the annulment of hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia by doxepin (a serotonin uptake inhibitor) in a large number of patients (16) led us to explore the possible insulinogenic effect of drugs like tianeptine, which enhances rather than inhibits the uptake of 5-HT.
The tendency to hyperinsulinism is a biological trait that we have inherited.
As a result, AJ also has apnea (periodic pauses in breathing), bradycardia (slow heartbeat), aspiration (difficulty swallowing correctly), paralyzed vocal cords and hyperinsulinism production of excessive insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels).
The grant, with additional funding from Heptares, will support a three-year research project aimed at developing first-in-class, selective and orally available small molecule GLP-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of severe hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose) in rare diseases including congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI).
An important feature of PCOS is that there are two prominent hormonal problems: hyperinsulinism and/or insulin resistance and elevated androgens.
Hyperinsulinism in asphyxiated and small-for-dates infants with hypoglycaemia.
Specific changes of the cellular phenotype of the first two FAH lineages are similar in experimental and human hepatocarcinogenesis regardless of whether they are elicited by DNA-reactive chemicals, hormones, radiation, viruses, transgenic oncogenes, or local hyperinsulinism as described by the first two FAHs, and this similarity favors extrapolation of data obtained in animals to humans (Bannasch et al.
Hyperinsulinism is also responsible for other phenomena not typically associated with carbohydrate metabolism.
Other causes of postprandial hypoglycemia can include overactive islet cells, sometimes caused by excess numbers of cells, a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin, or familial hyperinsulinism (hereditary production of too much insulin), which in severe cases can necessitate removal of the pancreas.
Effect of glucagon on glucose production, lipolysis, and gluconeogenesis in familial hyperinsulinism.
The Pedersen hypothesis proposes that the cause of macrosomia in diabetic pregnancies is fetal hyperinsulinism secondary to an excessive supply of substrate due to maternal hyperglycemia (25).