0), the concentration of chloride ion in the hemolymph of Saduria entomon remains unchanged and was at higher levels than in the medium, which is typical for hyperosmotic
regulators (Hagerman & Szaniawska 1991).
Recently, this standard has been challenged by use of the original hyperosmotic
solution, hypertonic saline (HS).
In addition, it must be recalled that betaine may be diagnostically important not only as a sign of tubular distorsion but also for its protective effect on bacteria growth in hyperosmotic
For low-level hyperosmotic
stress, a rapid response occurs with Hog1 phosphorylation of glycerol-synthesizing enzymes such as Gpd1 in the cytosol and of glycerol transporter Fps1 on the cell membrane.
Also, as the filtrate descends through the loop of Henle into the hyperosmotic
medulla, water is reabsorbed, but what prevents a flow reversal as the filtrate turns and ascends toward the renal cortex?
Marine teleosts are susceptible to water loss because they are hypoosmotic to their environment while freshwater teleosts are hyperosmotic
and must protect themselves from water gain.
Cell volume density alterations within the stria vascularis after administration of a hyperosmotic
The classification of fluids into isosmotic, hyperosmotic
, and hypoosmotic is based on whether the solutions have a higher or lower osmolality than body fluids.
1) It occurs on a backdrop of hyperosmotic
, isoosmotic, and hypoosmotic plasma; hence measurement of plasma osmolarity is important in the assessment of hyponatremia.
volume regulation in the tissues of the mussel Mtilus edulis.