hypertonic

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Related to hyperosmotic: hyposmotic

hypertonic

[‚hī·pər′tän·ik]
(physiology)
Excessive or above normal in tone or tension, as a muscle.
Having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution or of any other solution taken as a standard.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cloning and characterization of salmon hsp90 cDNA upregulation by thermal and hyperosmotic stress.
Li et al., "Substance P inhibits hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis in corneal epithelial cells through the mechanism of Akt activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging via the neurokinin-1 receptor," PLoS One, vol.
Firstly, high concentration of NaCl produced hyperosmotic stress in cells that inhibited water uptake, which lead to decrease nutrition absorption and low water availability.
The prolapsed tissues of both cases were cleaned with antiseptic solution (povidone iodine), lavaged with hyperosmotic dextrose solution (20% dextrose) and gently massaged to reduce edema.
Different physiological properties of yeast such as invertase activity, flocculation, ethanol tolerance, hyperosmotic tolerance, temperature tolerance, and C[O.sub.2] production for a strain to be used as a commercial baker's were also analyzed [12, 13].
Teleosts are well adapted for ion exchange using active and passive mechanisms across various surface membranes to keep the osmotic pressure of their body fluids steady when they face relatively hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment [39].
Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated a link between elevated extracellular NaCl and the development of exaggerated sympathetic outflow [2, 9-12] as well as central hyperosmotic NaCl challenge consistently increases SNA [2, 9-14].
Bowman, "Physiological aspects of Listeria monocytogenes during inactivation accelerated by mild temperatures and otherwise non-growth permissive acidic and hyperosmotic conditions," International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.
The objective of the passive methods is the permeabilization of the BBB with hyperosmotic agents, surfactant, ultrasounds, and electromagnetic waves to transiently open the tight cell-cell junctions of the BBB [173].
A previous study reported the occurrence of local [Ca.sup.2+] signals by acute (<1h.) hyperosmotic stress in the cell periphery of cultured muscle fibers [59].
Vestibular dysfunction etiology is still unclear; it has been hypothesized that the reflux of hyperosmotic fluid into the basal end of the cochlear duct may elicit vertigo, while degeneration of vestibular hair cells due to osmotic and chemical imbalance maybe another mechanism of injury [9, 28, 33].

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