hypertonic

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Related to hyperosmotic: hyposmotic

hypertonic

[‚hī·pər′tän·ik]
(physiology)
Excessive or above normal in tone or tension, as a muscle.
Having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution or of any other solution taken as a standard.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, Grovum (1995) reported that the increase in ruminal fluid osmolality by intraruminal infusion of the same dose of hyperosmotic NaCl, PEG, sodium acetate or sodium propionate resulted in the same-sized decreases in alfalfa pellet intake by sheep.
These results demonstrated that this metabolic variable has been useful to evaluate the effect of these particular stress conditions, as has been reported in oyster Crassostrea corteziensis exposed chronically to hyperosmotic (50 psu) conditions (Perez-Velasco 2014) and other stressful conditions in some species of crustacean (Hall & van Ham 1998, Racotta & Palacios 1998, Mercier et al.
Gene expression of taurine transporter and taurine biosynthetic enzymes in hyperosmotic states: a comparative study with the expression of the genes involved in the accumulation of other osmolytes.
It is also known that the hyperosmotic fluid used for total parenteral nutrition can cause blood vessel puncture through erosive damage.
Plasma in freshwater fishes particularly in cyprinids is hyperosmotic.
The basis of this assay is that cell wall damage effects should be ameliorated under hyperosmotic conditions.
In addition, hyperosmotic contrast media also cause diuresis and natriuresis that stimulate the macula densa to release adenosine for the activation of adenosine A1 receptors, resulting in vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole of the glomerulus as well as the medullary vascular bed [6].
Burg MB, Ferraris JD, Dmitrieva NI: Cellular response to hyperosmotic stresses.
Problems seem to be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, or hyperosmotic drinks, and the intake of fibers, fat and protein (15).
Hyperosmotic solution, such as sodium phosphate, can lead to hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and dehydration (Ori et al.
potiuna were strong hyperosmotic regulators in freshwater or low salinities (0-14 ppt), while at high salinities (21-35 ppt) they were hypoconformers; mortality started at salinity of 21 ppt, and metabolic rates tended to decline with salinity increase (for details see Moreira et al.
Increased degradation of blood protein, especially of Hc, has been observed in several euryhaline crab species during hyperosmotic stress (Gilles, 1977).

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