Yaksh, "Concentration-effect relations for intravenous lidocaine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute sensory thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia
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Neuropathic pain is caused by direct nerve injury and characterized by inguinodynia with radiation to scrotum/femoral triangle, paraesthesia, allodynia, hyperpathia
, hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia and positive Tinel sign.
Abnormal sensations (paresthesia), unpleasant sensations (dysthesia), and an abnormal reaction to a repetitive stimulus in a patient who initially did not perceive the stimulus as painful (hyperpathia
) are common neuropathic pain presentations.
More studies are required to confirm whether Tan IIA produces protective effects to alleviate hyperpathia
in SNL-induced neuropathic pain, and whether Tan IIA downregulates HMGB1 and TLR4 expression in the spinal cord is not yet clear.
Examination can also show features of allodynia (pain caused by a stimulus that does not normally cause pain), hyperalgesia (pain of abnormal severity in response to a stimulus that normally produces pain), hyperpathia
(painful reaction to a repetitive stimulus associated with increased threshold to pain), dysaesthesia (unpleasant abnormal sensation as numbness, pins and needles or burning), paraesthesia (abnormal sensation which is not unpleasant) or evoke electric shock like pains.
Palpation of spine revealed a painful lesion (hyperpathia
) over cervical region.
The consequent barrage of activity to the spinal cord leads to central sensitisation (hyperpathia
, allodynia and secondary hyperalgesia) that is a feature of neuropathic pain (2).
Multiple neurotransmitters and regions have been implicated to date in the anomalous processing of pain in patients with FB, in an attempt to establish the physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the hyperpathia
produced in practically all these patients (Ablin, Buskila, & Clauw, 2009; Williams & Clauw, 2009).