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hyperplasia(hī'pərplā`zhə): see hypertrophyhypertrophy
, enlargement of a tissue or organ of the body resulting from an increase in the size of its cells. Such growth accompanies an increase in the functioning of the tissue. In normal physiology the growth in size of muscles (e.g.
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an increase in the number of structural elements of tissues or organs. In man and animals, hyperplasia is based on the intensified reproduction of cells and the formation of new structures. Hyperplasia is observed in various types of pathological growth of tissues (chronic productive inflammation and tumor), in regeneration, and in hypertrophy. Hyperplasia often carries with it compensating characters. In plants, it may be a local growth of tissues resulting from mitotic or amitotic cell division. It occurs with infection by destructive or pathogenic organisms, during trauma, and under the influence of growth stimulants, pesticides, and other preparations. The result of hyperplasia is the formation of galls, calluses, and warts.