hypersensitization


Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.

hypersensitization

(hÿ-per-sen-să-ti-zay -shŏn) The subjection of an unexposed photographic emulsion to one or more methods of treatment in order to improve its response to light or other radiation. This allows the emulsion to be used at the extremely low intensities of light and other electromagnetic radiation encountered in astronomy without an excessively long exposure time. Alternatively in a set period of telescope time the quantity or quality of information obtained can be increased by hypersensitization. Various techniques are used. One particularly suitable for light-sensitive emulsions is gas hypersensitization (or hypering). It involves heating the emulsion in either pure nitrogen gas or in nitrogen with a small admixture of hydrogen. The gas removes oxygen and water vapor from the emulsion; these impurities act as desensitizers. Heating speeds up this leaching process and can also increase the chemical sensitization, i.e. the possibility that grains in the emulsion if hit by light will be activated.

Hypersensitization

 

a method of increasing the speed of a silver halide photographic material by washing it in water, an aqueous or aqueous-ammonia solution of silver nitrate, or a solution of triethanolamine. Hypersensitization can increase sensitivity severalfold, especially in the case of infrachromatic materials. The possibilities of hypersensitization are quite limited, however, largely because it must be carried out immediately before exposure. The effect of hypersensitization is manifested more in the region of additional sensitivity of the photographic material (caused by the presence in the emulsion of molecules of a sensitizer-dye) than in the region of the material’s own sensitivity (caused by the properties of the silver halide itself); it also appears at long exposure times and for low illumination on the layer. The nature of hypersensitization consists first in reducing the concentration in the emulsion layer of bromine ions, which reduce the photosensitivity of the layer but heighten the selectivity of the developer, and second in removing from the surface of the silver halide crystals oxidized molecules of the sensitizer-dye that have been adsorbed by it.

IU. N. GOROKHOVSKII

hypersensitization

[¦hī·pər‚sen·sə·tə′zā·shən]
(graphic arts)
Any of various techniques for increasing the sensitivity of a photographic plate; includes chemical treatments, removal of oxygen and water, baking, soaking in hydrogen gas, preflashing, and push development.
(immunology)
The process of producing hypersensitivity.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ueda, "Inhibition of paclitaxel-induced A-fiber hypersensitization by gabapentin," Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol.
The putative mechanism of tardive dyskinesia is hypersensitization of the nigrostriatal tract by dopamine inhibition.
In my opinion the best medium-format color films for astrophotography are Kodak E200 and Fuji Provia 400F, both of which perform well without special treatment, such as gas hypersensitization. For 35-mm format, you might consider Kodak RG200, Kodak Supra 400, or Fuji HQ100.
This film loses hypersensitization when exposed to high temperatures or humidity and I would be traveling for more than a week before reaching Vicuna.
Those interested in film hypersensitization are referred to an Internet site; neither author uses this technique, preferring to rely on film straight out of the box.
Using vacuum pumps, heating ovens, and trial-and-error techniques handed down by word of mouth, they would subject their films to this gas in a process called hypersensitization. It didn't take a bolt of lightning from a passing storm to make it work, but it seemed almost as diabolical.
Gas hypersensitization of color films effectively doubles their ISO speed without increasing film grain.
The Super G 800 Plus's "off-the-shelf" capability allows it to be used without gas hypersensitization, though hypering is recommended for long exposures.
This film is especially appealing because its high speed is achieved without hypersensitization. In addition to its moderate grain size and exceptional color balance, there is virtually no color cast when the film is exposed in a dark sky -- the background remains a neutral gray.
Recent methods to combat reciprocity failure have centered on gas hypersensitization. This process usually involves treating an emulsion in a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen prior to exposure.