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Any disease of the brain.



a collective term that designates a noninflammatory organic disease of the brain. Some encephalopathies are innate, resulting from embryopathy. Others are the result of infection, poisoning, trauma, or vascular disease of the brain. There are no specific manifestations. The most common encephalopathies resemble neuroses (asthenia, irritability, insomnia, headaches) or psychoses (narrowed scope of interests, passivity, emotional instability, vulgarity). Symptoms may include memory loss or mental deterioration.

Alcoholic encephalopathies are alcoholic psychoses. They may be acute, as in Wernicke’s encephalopathy (named for the German neuropathologist C. Wernicke, who described the condition in 1881), or chronic, as in Korsakov’s psychosis (named for S. S. Korsakov) and alcoholic pseudoparalysis. Lead encephalopathy is caused by chronic poisoning by lead salts.

Treatment for encephalopathies depends on the cause of the disease.

References in periodicals archive ?
Subarachnoid haemorrhage, acute intracerebral haemorrhage, hypertensive encephalopathy, and acute ischemic stroke require rapid BP reduction.
Preeclampsia-eclampsia: Clinical and neuroradiographic correlates and insights into the pathogenesis of hypertensive encephalopathy.
A Hypertensive encephalopathy is a brain swelling caused by a sudden, severe, and persistent elevation in blood pressure in people who have uncontrolled high blood pressure.
The ischemic heart condition associated with incorrect administration of antihypertensive drugs (the maximal blood pressure--BP around 200 mmHg) lead to the development of hypertensive encephalopathy phenomena, requiring hospitalization.
A Hypertensive encephalopathy is a swelling of the brain caused by a sudden, severe, and persistent elevation of blood pressure in individuals who have uncontrolled high blood pressure.
While the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, clinical entities with hypertension as a component, such as hypertensive encephalopathy, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, renal failure, as well as general anesthesia, systemic lupus erythematosus and several chemotherapeutic agents (cyclosporine, cisplatin, tacrolimus) are known etiologic causes.
Headache can be caused by acute elevation in blood pressure due to hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count), or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), Dr.
Hypertensive encephalopathy, renal failure, vasculitis, immunosuppressive treatment, and eclampsia have been reported to be major causes of this syndrome (Javad et al.
Several "overlap syndromes"--postpartum cerebral angiopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome--may show neuroimaging features that are similar to or indistinguishable from those of eclampsia, the authors said (Clin.
Severe life-threatening renal disease (scleroderma renal crisis) develops in approximately 10%-15% of patients with diffuse sclerosis and is characterized by acute onset of kidney failure in the absence of previous kidney disease; abrupt onset of moderate to marked hypertension, often times with at least grade III hypertensive retinopathy; and hypertensive-associated manifestations, including microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, pulmonary edema, headache, blurred vision, and hypertensive encephalopathy, frequently manifesting with seizures.
Eclampsia is defined as the occurrence of seizures and/or coma resulting from hypertensive encephalopathy on a background of preeclampsia (1).

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