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(hīpûr`trəfē), enlargement of a tissue or organ of the body resulting from an increase in the size of its cells. Such growth accompanies an increase in the functioning of the tissue. In normal physiology the growth in size of muscles (e.g., in an athlete as a result of increased exercise) and also the enlargement of a uterus in pregnancy are caused by hypertrophy of muscle cells. In pathology the thickening of the heart muscle from overstrain, as in hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), is the result of hypertrophy. An organ subjected to extra work (e.g., the one kidney left to function after surgical removal of the other) usually compensates by enlarging; in such cases hyperplasia, an increase in the number of cells, generally accompanies hypertrophy.



an increase in the volume of a body organ or of any of its parts.

Hypertrophy in man (or in animals) may occur either as the result of the enlargement of the individual component elements of an organ (cells and tissues) or as the result of an increase in their quantity (hyperplasia). True hypertrophy and false hypertrophy are distinguished. The former includes enlargement in volume or mass of specific elements as the result of an increased functional load (so-called functional, or compensatory, hypertrophy) or disruption of the regulatory influences of the nervous and endocrine systems. Functional hypertrophy may appear in healthy persons who are occupied with physical labor, such as in athletes (“physiologic hypertrophy” of the muscles). It may also appear upon affection of a part of any organ, such as after heart failure (compensatory hypertrophy) or after the destruction of a paired organ, such as a kidney (vicarious hypertrophy). Compensation for the impaired functions occurs in all instances of functional hypertrophy. Examples of hypertrophy occurring as a result of the disruption of neuroendocrine influences include acromegaly and gynecomastia; in these cases the hypertrophy has no compensatory significance but is accompanied by considerable disturbances of function. False hypertrophy refers to enlargement of the organ as the result of excessive growth of the interstitial, most often the adipose, tissue in response to atrophy of the parenchyma (the functional tissue). Function of the organ in such cases is usually decreased.


Hypertrophy of plant organs is the result of an increase in the size of their cells. The hypertrophy may be the effect of increased synthesis of the substances of the cell membrane or cytoplasm, deposits of reserve compounds, or the development of polynucleosis or polyploidy. The causes of hypertrophy include disruption of the synthesis and metabolism of phenol compounds, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, as well as deficiency of trace elements. The condition may also be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, and plant parasites. It may accompany many mutations, grafts, and the effects on the plant of ionizing radiation or ultrasound. Hypertrophy is usually interconnected with hyperplasia and disruptions of tissue differentiation in the organs. In many instances (for example, when there is development of tumors or galls) hypertrophy follows cell division; after mechanical injury and physical or chemical effects, however, it is often primary. Hypertrophy is observed in higher as well as in lower plants.



Increase in cell size causing an increase in the size of an organ or tissue.


enlargement of an organ or part resulting from an increase in the size of the cells
References in periodicals archive ?
In our case, it was seen that the liver was hypertrophied on the 6th day after the first stage; right hepatectomy was then performed for the second stage.
Naive and memory T cells in hypertrophied adenoids in children according to age.
Patients with bilateral nasal obstruction and bilateral hypertrophied inferior turbinates suffered from allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis.
Inferior turbinectomy with the help of turbinectomy scissors has been described to relieve chronic nasal obstruction due to hypertrophied inferior turbinates but this procedure can lead to several complications like post-operative bleeding3, pain, excessive crusting and poor healing4.
Inclusion criteria were patients with chronic hypertrophied inferior turbinates without DNS and not relieved by medications for more than six months.
The individuals with hypertensive heart disease also exhibited uniformly hypertrophied left ventricles, whereas those individuals with HCM had asymmetrically enlarged ventricles (as described above).
In the hypertrophied hearts treated with Rapa, state III respiration rates were significantly increased compared with those in hypertrophied hearts (P < 0.01 versus model).
These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increase in collagen content (fibrosis) and a decreased elastin-to-collagen ratio in hypertrophied LF [57].
Our clinical examination revealed that his inferior turbinates had hypertrophied (figure 1, A).
Hypertrophied turbinate is characterised by chronic hyperaemia of nasal mucosa secondary to inflammatory cells infiltration, fibrosis of submucosa and periosteal thickening of the turbinates.
This is because the hypertrophied hearts are more vulnerable to the detrimental effects of cardioplegia, such as coronary endothelial dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and myocardial stunning.
Hypertrophied inferior turbinates are a common cause of nasal obstruction leading to post nasal drip nasal congestion and headache2.