can be seen in a rear stockroom of the former Miss Selfridge store at 12, Northgate Street - which may have been the heating system for the Legionary Commander's quarters - and in a display at the Roman Gardens.
Bansal and India, "Characteristic parameters of a hypocaust
construction," Building and Environment, vol.
Fungal species occurring in single rooms included Ulocladium present in the hypocaust
(3 colonies), Epicoccum sp.
Also during this period we see the beginning of the end for hypocaust
type systems when King Edward VII laid the foundation stone in 1904 to what was to become Liverpool Cathedral.
Remains of the "hypocaust
," the system designed to generate central heating for the hot room, are found at the entrance to the site, in the form of small stacks of stone.
(90) Moreover, it was the discovery of an adjacent, Late Antique hypocaust
under Lysikrates Street that resulted in the relegation of the site to the rather undistinguished list of the city's Roman baths.
The Korean heated floor extends this stove to operate on a whole room, like a Roman hypocaust
. It consists of thin stone slabs propped on vertical stones to leave a void beneath, and hot gases from a wood fire lit in a chamber tucked under one side are sucked through underneath to a low flue at the other.
Never have the complexities of plumbing and drainage felt more interesting than when you're looking at a 2,000-year-old lead pipe built to carry hot water under pressure from one bath to another, next to a hypocaust
which created furnace-like sauna conditions long before most of the "barbarian" world had even learned how to wash.
Cecilia in showing her martyrdom in a bathtub rather than the historically correct hypocaust
, a room in a Roman villa with a space under the floor warmed by a furnace.
The Spud-U-Like building is interesting because in the basement is an in situ 1,800-year-old Roman hypocaust
-- from the Greek word meaning 'fire beneath' -- which was a common form of central heating used by Romans.
The remnants of a stove and hypocaust
(6) plates were found in the building, suggesting the time of use to be the 14th-16th century (Trummal 1992, 14).
Visitors can stroll around the remains on cleverly constructed gangways which negotiate the kitchens and ceremonial central water feature and I was struck that while my Celtic ancestors were shivering in huts, this Roman official was making the most of underfloor heating courtesy of the "hypocaust
" circulation system.