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Related to hypoglycemia: hyperglycemia


see diabetesdiabetes
or diabetes mellitus
, chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store
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a decrease in the sugar content of the blood to below 80-70 mg percent.

Hypoglycemia is found in healthy persons during heightened muscular activity as a result of the considerable expenditure of glucose as an energy source when the body’s energy loss is not replenished with readily assimilable carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia sometimes arises after heavy intake of carbohydrates as a result of the reflex secretion by the pancreas of an excessive amount of insulin. The condition is observed in certain diseases of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, the hypothalamic region of the brain, the other endocrine glands, or the liver (disruption of the liver’s function as the principal glycogen depot), as well as in insulin overdose (hypoglycemic shock). In hypoglycemic shock, after a short period of central nervous system excitation, a condition develops that is accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, hunger, and psychic disturbances. Trembling, loss of consciousness, and convulsions may set in when sugar content is lowered to 40 percent or less. The condition is eliminated by administering glucose. Hypoglycemic or insulin shock may be induced artificially for the treatment of certain diseases.


Genes, S. G. Gipoglikemiia: Gipoglikemiche skii simptomokompleks. Moscow, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 224-35.)


Condition caused by low levels of sugar in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
The estimated prevalence of bariatric surgery-induced hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is expected to be less than 200,000 in the US and less than 5 in 10,000 in the EU, and eligible for Orphan Designation in the US and Europe.
Adrenal insufficiency, particularly coexisting Addison's disease in a patient with type 1 DM, can cause hypoglycemia.
Major finding: Insulin-related hypoglycemia causes an estimated 97,648 ED visits every year, with the highest rate (34.
Causes of hypoglycemia in people being treated for diabetes include delayed or missed meals, unusual physical activity, excess doses of insulin or many of the oral medications for diabetes, and superadded illness like infections.
Causes of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in adult inpatients.
Blood glucose control is the key to preventing serious long-term complications related to high glucose levels (such as blindness or kidney failure) and reduces the risk of hypoglycemia (dangerously low blood glucose that can lead to confusion, disorientation and, if severe, loss of consciousness).
Hypoglycemia is a common clinical entity and is most frequently due to a complication of diabetes treatment (4), (5).
The risk of hypoglycemia is higher even when their medication regimen is the same and their [hemoglobin [A.
However, if a patient is seen in the afternoon when the risk for hypoglycemia is much greater, it can be easily managed with early intervention.
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes.
Key Words: diabetes, hypoglycemia, glucose homeostasis, glucose counterregulation, behavior, insulin, glucagon
Results from two large studies of patients aged 66 and older show a strong association between the use of gatifloxacin and inpatient treatment for both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.