In birds, GI hypomotility
can be observed with many pathologic processes, including heavy metal toxicosis, gastrointestinal parasitism, and inflammation.
Discontinuation of drugs causing hypomotility
, and dealing with problems of immobilization may solve the problem.
Many of these adverse effects, such as agranulocytosis or seizures, are familiar to clinicians; however, gastrointestinal (GI) hypomotility
is not always recognized as a potentially serious adverse effect, even though it is one of the most common causes for hospital admission.
This exposure promotes morphological and histological changes to the intestinal wall, such as reduction of intestine length, thickening of intestinal layers, and disturbance of neuronal cells maturation, leading to intestinal hypomotility
and impaired absorption of nutrients, which in turn raises the occurrence of post-operatory complications, elevating the morbidity, mortality, and time of stay treatment cost in the neonatal period (2,3).
This could ultimately lead to hypomotility
, delayed gastric emptying, and intestinal transit [60, 61].
Furthermore, elevated gestational progesterone levels cause hypomotility
of the gastrointestinal tract through smooth muscle relaxation, increasing constipation and volvulus risk .
Rats treated with TNBS showed prostration, hypomotility
, diarrhea, and a significant body weight loss.
Organ system involvement was defined as described previously [4,17-19]; lung: bibasilar fibrosis on chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography; esophagus: hypomotility
shown by barium radiography; heart: pericarditis, congestive heart failure, or arrhythmia requiring treatment; kidney: malignant hypertension and rapidly progressive renal failure with no other explanation; joints: inflammatory polyarthralgia or arthritis; and muscle: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase level.
Progesterone may also contribute to gallstone disease by inhibiting gallbladder contraction and promoting hypomotility
and gallbladder stasis.
Supragastric Belching: Prevalence and Association with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Esophageal Hypomotility
. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility.
General medications to treat short bowel syndrome include antibiotics to prevent bacterial overgrowth, H2 blockers to treat too much gastric acid secretion, proton pump inhibitors to treat too much gastric acid secretion, choleretic agents to improve bile flow and prevent liver disease, bile-salt binders to decrease diarrhea, anti-secretin agents to reduce gastric acid in the intestine, hypomotility
agents to increase the time it takes food to travel through the intestines, leading to increased nutrient absorption, growth hormones to improve intestinal absorption, teduglutide to improve intestinal absorption.
Following colorectal surgery, patients often experience gastrointestinal hypomotility
that can lead to postoperative ileus (Short et al., 2015; Su'a & Hill, 2015; van den Heijkant et al., 2014).