Genetic ablation of orexin neurons in mice leads to a phenotype very similar to human narcolepsy, including behavioral arrests, premature rapid eye movement sleep, and poorly consolidated sleep patterns as well as late-onset obesity despite hypophagia
compared to littermates (66, 67).
The dose of liraglutide (100 [micro]g/kg) was selected based on evidence that liraglutide acutely induced hypophagia
in mice [2,7].
Testing different hypotheses on rut-induced hypophagia
in a mountain ungulate.
[32-34] Although these experiments could be repeated with an antagonist of the orexin receptors and/or a blocker of the sympathetic activity, these findings well demonstrated the possibility that orexin A can induce hypophagia
Winder, "Knockdown of BNST GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors mimics the actions of ketamine on novelty-induced hypophagia
," Translational Psychiatry, vol.
Langhans, "TNF-[alpha] tolerance blocks LPS-induced hypophagia
but LPS tolerance fails to prevent TNF-[alpha]-induced hypophagia
," American Journal of Physiology, vol.
Chronic stress-mediated alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is root cause of hypophagia
. Reduction in sucrose preference in rats following UCMS has also been reported.42 Exposure to unpredictable stressors have resulted in inducing significant changes in behavioural parameters, such as altered locomotive and explorative behaviour, a decline in food intake, water intake and sexual activity.43 A study also suggested that chronic unpredicted mild stress-induced behavioural deficits in experimental animals could be used effectively as animal model of depression.
High forage intake in summer and autumn also aids preparing the essential rumen microflora for the upcoming period of hypophagia
(Barboza et al.
This effect might be attributed to the low nutritional value of this diet (protein-, fat-, and mineral-deficient) and hypophagia
during the first 2 days of administration, with subsequent growth catch-up.
Thereafter, levels begin to decline as the cow recovers from hypophagia
and the negative energy balance (Vasquez-Anon et al., 1994).
On the experimental day, MSG rats showed degenerated optic nerves (macroscopic observation) and other characteristics of this model, such as (a) low body weight, (b) high visceral adipose tissue mass, and (c) hypophagia
(average of individual daily food intake between 60 and 150 days of age), thus confirming several features of the complete MSG phenotype (Table 2).
Infections often induce physiological, metabolic, and behavioral changes, characterized by fever, reduced activity (lethargy), decreased appetite (hypophagia
), anhedonia, impaired cognitive function, anxiety, and depression .