Hymenoepimecis bicolor (Brulle, 1846) [male]: (A) habitus; (B) head and pronotum, dorsal view; (C-E) Hypopygium
and genitalia: (C) hypopygium
; (D) genitalia, lateral view; (E) genitalia, ventral view; (F) cocoon.
compertus, from which it can be discerned by the light hairs on the hypopygium
, which are black in the latter (Fig.
Members of this subfamily can be distinguished structurally by their medium body size usually about 1.5-3.5 mm long; females with short ovipositor; metasomal tergum weakly sclerotized; antenna short with 10 to 28 segments; ovipositor sheath or hypopygium
in females often modified; a single, large median cell in the fore wing in most species; smooth scutellar sulcus present; cross vein cu-a absent in the hind wing and occipital carina present (at least laterally) (Stary 1970; Achterberg 1997).
1 A) with the first segment black on basal half, orange-yellow on apical half; segments 2 to 4 orange-yellow except posterior corners weakly black; the remainder of segments, including hypopygium
The recognition of the species in this huge genus is based on the male hypopygium
in the first instance.
El abdomen se disecciono directamente en una gota de KOH y las estructuras quitinosas (aedeagus e hypopygium
) se limpiaron en un estereoscopio e inmediatamente se llevaron al microscopio y se fotografiaron con camara digital con objetivo de 40X.
Gaster generally longer than head plus thorax; hypopygium
usually prominent, extending nearly to level of cereal plates; ovipositor at least slightly exserted (Hayat 1998).
In Kokkocynips, tarsal claws are simple, without basal lobe, the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium
3.0-3.3 times longer than broad, the head is transverse in front view, broader than high, the length of antennae nearly equal to length of head+mesosoma, F2 and subsequent flagellomeres are stout, short, F1 2.0 times longer than F2, lateral propodeal carinae toward distal part of propodeum gradually curved outwards, the central propodeal and lateral propodeal areas dull rugose; all tergites uniformly reticulate, 2nd metasomal tergite with sparse lateral hairs, induce rounded detachbale soft unilocular twig galls.
After Achterberg (1995) the genus can be characterised by malar suture distinct (Figures 1, 2); costulae of propodeum absent or short (Figures 3, 4); vein r-m of forewing absent and no quadrangular, second submarginal cell present; vein r of forewing issued near basal third of pterostigma; vein CU1b of forewing absent; no ventral tooth on hind femur; hind femur more or less swollen; fore telotarsus comparatively wide; second and third tergites distinctly widened posteriorly (Figures 5, 6); hypopygium
of female medium-sized and apically truncate.
Weakly or strongly curved downwards, subshiny black with pale gray pollinosity; hypopygium