hypopygium

hypopygium

[‚hī·pə′pij·ē·əm]
(invertebrate zoology)
A modified ninth abdominal segment together with the copulatory apparatus in Diptera.
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Gaster generally longer than head plus thorax; hypopygium usually prominent, extending nearly to level of cereal plates; ovipositor at least slightly exserted (Hayat 1998).
5 mm long; females with short ovipositor; metasomal tergum weakly sclerotized; antenna short with 10 to 28 segments; ovipositor sheath or hypopygium in females often modified; a single, large median cell in the fore wing in most species; smooth scutellar sulcus present; cross vein cu-a absent in the hind wing and occipital carina present (at least laterally) (Stary 1970; Achterberg 1997).
The holotype of Polypedilum quinquesetosum is pinned and the hypopygium is mounted in Canada balsam, for this reason its measurements were not included in the diagnosis presented in this study.
1 A) with the first segment black on basal half, orange-yellow on apical half; segments 2 to 4 orange-yellow except posterior corners weakly black; the remainder of segments, including hypopygium black.
The recognition of the species in this huge genus is based on the male hypopygium in the first instance.
After Achterberg (1995) the genus can be characterised by malar suture distinct (Figures 1, 2); costulae of propodeum absent or short (Figures 3, 4); vein r-m of forewing absent and no quadrangular, second submarginal cell present; vein r of forewing issued near basal third of pterostigma; vein CU1b of forewing absent; no ventral tooth on hind femur; hind femur more or less swollen; fore telotarsus comparatively wide; second and third tergites distinctly widened posteriorly (Figures 5, 6); hypopygium of female medium-sized and apically truncate.
Weakly or strongly curved downwards, subshiny black with pale gray pollinosity; hypopygium weakly swollen.
It can be distinguished from these related genera by the following combination of characteristics: tergite 1 (petiole) with primary and secondary tubercles; accessory prongs of female hypopygium absent; and fifth, sixth, and seventh terga of female without subapical row of pegs or spiny bristles (Stary, 1995; Sharkey & Wharton, 1997; Sampaio et al.
In Kokkocynips, tarsal claws are simple, without basal lobe, the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium 3.
male; A: antenna; B: palpus; C: legs; D: wing; E: aedeagus; F: hypopygium, ventral view.
The body length was measured from the insertion of the antenna to the apex of the hypopygium in males and to posterior margin of the fifth tergite in females.
To analyze the morphological characteristics of the samples, one side of wing, legs, and hypopygium were dissected from single chironomid and mounted on the slide with the conventional method.