Urinalysis showed persistent proteinuria (UPC ratio > 0.5), urine specific gravity confirmed isosthenuria or hyposthenuria
except in dogs presented with end stage renal disease.
Sickle cell nephropathy may develop early in the course of patients with SCD and can have a variety of manifestations such as hyposthenuria
, hematuria, proteinuria, abnormal urinary acidification, and renal failure [1, 4,11].
indicates that the renal tubules maintain the ability to dilute urine.
Behrman attributed six types of nephropathies in SCD to chronic renal medullary hypoxia: gross haematuria, papillary necrosis, nephrotic syndrome, renal infarction, hyposthenuria
, and pyelonephritis, while more recently, RMC was described as the seventh sickle cell nephropathy .