1) On this point, see Stephen Darwall, Impartial Reason (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983), 15, 44-50; Patricia Greenspan, "Conditional Oughts and Hypothetical Imperatives
," Journal of Philosophy 73 (1975): 259-276; R.
In the first case, practical reasoning transforms the desire into a maxim by selecting a hypothetical imperative that matches the desired outcome with an appropriate action.
Even though institutional norms appear to take a categorical form, they must in fact harbor a hypothetical imperative somewhere in the chain of supporting reasons (1977, pp.
Even though it is in my nature to want to be happy, the application of the requirement expressed by an imperative of prudence is still dependent on an end that I have-if I did not want to seek my own happiness, I would have no reason to do what the hypothetical imperative
of prudence instructed that I ought to do.
8) Is his doctrine that methodological rules are hypothetical imperatives for securing cognitive goals an unproblematic meta-methodology for scientific medicine?
normative-naturalistic) way to proceed is to produce hypothetical imperatives as candidates for evaluation.
All rules of this sort can be seen as embedded in another hypothetical imperative in which the expressed aim is the promotion of human health and the tacit assumption is that the aim o the Laudan-type imperative is an instance of promoting health.
In effect, medicine decided to adopt as a methodological rule the following hypothetical imperative 'In order to cure diseases, prevent diseases, and so on (a list of specific aim may be substituted), then adopt and employ the methods and theories of the natural sciences'.
While it is true and important to the Groundwork to establish that practical reason has its own necessary and unconditional end (namely, rational nature), it is also important to account for the passages where the categorical imperative is taken to be fundamentally different in kind from hypothetical imperatives
Utilitarianism is only one moral system justified by the hypothetical imperative; a more rational argument can be made for a system that utilizes the hypothetical imperative but does not have as its primary goal the maximization of societal wealth and happiness (although these may be byproducts of that system).
While this Note takes a contrary position, most believe that other moral goals (such as "thou shall not steal") are not part of a hypothetical imperative.
An excellent example of the hypothetical imperative applied to ethics can be found in the works of Aristotle.