hysterectomy

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hysterectomy

(hĭstərĕk`təmē), surgical removal of the uterusuterus,
in most female mammals, hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops and from which it is delivered at the end of pregnancy. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 3 in. (7.
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. A hysterectomy may involve removal of the uterus only or additional removal of the cervix (base of the uterus), fallopian tubesfallopian tube
, either of a pair of tubes extending from the uterus to the paired ovaries in the human female, also called oviducts, technically known as the uterine tube.
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 (salpingectomy), and ovariesovary,
ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual characteristics.
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 (oophorectomy). It may be performed through a conventional abdominal incision or through the vagina. It is performed in cases of malignant tumors, endometriosis, prolapsed uterus, or fibroids that cause bleeding and pain. An emergency hysterectomy is sometimes necessary to end uterine hemorrhaging.

Removal does not physically interfere with sexual activity, but it does eliminate the uterine contractions of orgasm. It also eliminates the possibility of childbearing and precipitates menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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 in premenopausal women. Surgical removal of the ovaries eliminates their production of estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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 along with these hormones's protective benefits to the heart, bones, and skin.

Some women's health advocates have questioned what they feel is the overuse of hysterectomy in the United States, where it is the second most common surgical procedure. Some studies have judged that up to 25% of hysterectomies performed in the United States are unnecessary and that more conservative treatments (laparoscopic surgery, hormone therapy, or simple removal of fibroids) would suffice in these cases.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

hysterectomy

[‚his·tə′rek·tə·mē]
(medicine)
Surgical removal of all or part of the uterus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
A clinicohistopathological analysis of 260 hysterectomies Pakistan J Pathol 2001;12(2):114.
A study conducted in Southern India most of the hysterectomies were performed abdominally (75.5%) then vaginally (7.8%) and rest laproscopically (6.6%).18 In our study 58.33% hysterectomies were performed abdominally and 41.67% were performed vaginally.
Despite a weight of evidence supporting a vaginal approach [9, 10], the proportion of hysterectomies performed vaginally has fallen overall, with the greatest decrease has been seen in the younger age group.
Grosse-Drieling, "Unexpected malignancies after laparoscopic-assisted supracervical hysterectomies (LASH): an analysis of 1,584 LASH cases," Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol.
Conclusion: Abdominal hysterectomies carried out in our setup are most commonly done for menstrual irregularities and complication rate is low.
All elective as well as emergency hysterectomies (including obstetric hysterectomies) were analyzed excluding oncological hysterectomies.
Of the approximately 600,000 hysterectomies each year in the United States, about one-third are performed to treat uterine fibroids.
Methodology: As a part of a quality assurance process at the Mercy Teaching Hospital, hysterectomies performed between 1st January, 2010 and 1st Jan 2012 were retrospectively analyzed for presenting complaints, surgical indication, histologic findings, and postoperative complications.
"There's a belief out there that hysterectomies do lead to weight gain," ABC Online quoted Fitzgerald, as saying.
This newer type of hysterectomy also uses laparoscopic techniques to remove the uterus, but leaves the cervix intact, which some studies suggest may help reduce the complications associated with total hysterectomies, such as genital prolapse and urinary incontinence.
Most hysterectomies were performed vaginally, said Dr.
Researchers identified 157 women with fibroids embedded in the uterine wall and randomly assigned 106 to get embolization, 43 to get hysterectomies, and 8 to undergo surgical removal of fibroids.