For comparison purposes, the hysteresis error
will be defined in a manner that A([sigma]) will not affect calculations.
Unlike for the straightness measurements, the hysteresis error
describes the maximum difference, as a percentage of full scale, between the data points in a ramping from zero to full scale and back to zero again.
There are glass scales that not only have essentially zero thermal expansion, but that are mounted in a new way that reduces the hysteresis error
to a fifth of the previously used method.
Providing a measurement accuracy of 0.03% in terms of linearity deviation, including hysteresis error
, HBM says the latest version of the T40B torque transduce guarantees maximum precision and accuracy.
Another advantage is that there is no contact between the rotary ring and static read head, which eliminates friction and, hence, hysteresis error
as well as potential wear or any need for lubrication.
The hysteresis curve is shown in Figure 7.Fromthe hysteresis error
formula [[gamma].sub.H] = [+ or -](1/2)([DELTA][H.sub.max]/[F.sub.FS]), where [DELTA][H.sub.max] is the maximum differences output in forward and backward operations and [F.sub.FS] is the full scale output, the hysteresis of the humidity sensors at the prepared conditions of deposition distance and time were 40 mm and 5 min, was also investigated.
is a lag in the instrument's altitude indication.
In the force mode the most important source of hysteresis error
arises due to systematic angular motions of the wheel before weighings.
is a lag in indicated altitude due to the elastic properties of the material within the altimeter.
The transducers are rugged to 20000 g shock and minimum 4X burst pressure, and offer non-linearity, non-repeatability, and pressure hysteresis errors
of less than 0.50% FSO (200 and 500 psia versions) and 1% FSO (1000 psia version).
The RESM encoder features a large diameter, low-profile stainless steel ring that mounts directly to the machine shaft, avoiding coupling losses, oscillation, shaft torsion, and other hysteresis errors
inherent with sealed encoders.