and subsequent ice shedding into engine cores during flight can adversely affect engine performance and damage engine components.
The software uses information about the airflow surrounding the body of interest to calculate trajectories of approaching water droplets, the mass and energy transfer processes at the surface of the body, and the resulting ice accretion
Ice buildup may be within tolerance for a time, but it only takes a few short minutes for ice accretion
to become extreme and urgent.
In view of the serious threats that ice accretion
would impose on flight safety, ice protection methods must be applied to prevent or control the ice accretion
Yet the phenomenon, known as engine core ice accretion
, has happened more than 150 times since 1988--frequently enough to attract the attention of NASA aviation safety experts.
 carried out a wind tunnel test to investigate the influence of the initial ice accretion
angle on the aerodynamic characteristics of D-shape 2-bundled and 6-bundled conductors.
Bank angle plus ice accretion
would have given the airplane a higher stall speed.
Contributions come from a variety of organizations including NASA, Boeing Aircraft, and Pennsylvania State University, and address aspects of the issue such as fluid dynamics, observational technology, hydrophobic coatings, interaction of meteorological conditions with wing shapes, and a variety of ice accretion
Conductor galloping represents a classical motion instability mechanism in the steady flow over a noncircular cross section caused by ice accretion
on the conductor.
Currently there are two main approaches to deal with the ice accretion