Daily SIE (fractional) was obtained at 25 km x 25 km spatial resolution from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Snow and Ice Data Center (NOAA/NSIDC) climate data record of passive microwave sea ice concentration
The predictors that contribute to AERs forecast include the El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), October Eurasian snow cover extent, Arctic sea ice concentration
, and an index that measures high-latitude blocking.
Sea ice concentration
data were obtained at a 10 km resolution from the Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (http://www.
To validate the ice flags provided in the RADS data set and to study the effect of ice cover on the quality of altimeter data, we calculated ice concentration
for each altimeter measurement.
Especially pressure build up, mass throughput and the dry ice concentration
itself have a high impact on the process.
This web-based tool allows users to view and download sea ice concentration
data from 1850 to the present.
Under "normal" conditions, Adelie penguins were most successful at finding food at relatively low sea ice concentrations
and should be able to cope with future reduction in summer sea ice concentration
Orbital neutron measurements also indicate elevated levels of nearasurface hydrogen in the polar regions; in the form of water, this hydrogen would represent an average ice concentration
of about 1.
The majority of whale sightings (both minkes and, to a lesser extent, killer whales) were made in areas with 20 per cent sea ice concentration
The Global Ice Center has been collecting and monitoring global sea ice data, including ice concentration
, ice thickness and ice drift, since its opening in July 2008, in order to provide unified global sea ice information to shipping companies.
The equations for the ice concentration
and thickness for each ice category read