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The predictors that contribute to AERs forecast include the El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), October Eurasian snow cover extent, Arctic sea ice concentration, and an index that measures high-latitude blocking.
Stronger wind increased noise, whereas greater ice concentration decreased it, dampening the effect of wind speed.
To validate the ice flags provided in the RADS data set and to study the effect of ice cover on the quality of altimeter data, we calculated ice concentration for each altimeter measurement.
Especially pressure build up, mass throughput and the dry ice concentration itself have a high impact on the process.
Under "normal" conditions, Adelie penguins were most successful at finding food at relatively low sea ice concentrations and should be able to cope with future reduction in summer sea ice concentration.
Orbital neutron measurements also indicate elevated levels of nearasurface hydrogen in the polar regions; in the form of water, this hydrogen would represent an average ice concentration of about 1.5 percent by weight.
The majority of whale sightings (both minkes and, to a lesser extent, killer whales) were made in areas with 20 per cent sea ice concentration. So we're pretty certain minke whales are in the sea ice in significant numbers in this area of east Antarctica,' said Kelly.
The Global Ice Center has been collecting and monitoring global sea ice data, including ice concentration, ice thickness and ice drift, since its opening in July 2008, in order to provide unified global sea ice information to shipping companies.
Net sea ice extent (SIE; the area enclosed by the ice edge consisting of a range in sea ice concentration) and sea ice area (SIA; the actual area covered by sea ice) were well below the 1981-2010 average for all of 2017 (Fig.