All the surveying was done by mapping which meant going out on the ice fields
on dog sleds for days on end and camping out.
During a 2002 expedition to the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru, the largest tropical ice field
in the world, Thompson and colleagues discovered patches of ancient wetland plants that had been exposed as the edge of the ice cap retreated.
His mathematical formula - now known as the Batten Method - allows submarines to pass through precarious ice fields
in more than double the time and with vastly improved safety.
They examined a large supply of micrometeorites from the same Antarctic ice field
In August, scientists returned to the Antarctic ice fields
, hoping to find more of these jewels from long ago.
Some researchers have argued that the Antarctic ice field
in which ALH84001 landed some 13,000 years ago could have contaminated the meteorite with terrestrial PAHs or other organic materials.
The icebreaker is able to proceed continuously both ahead and astern at the speed of 2 knots in compact ice field
up to 2m thick with 20cm of snow cover and temperatures as low as minus 35 degrees Celsius.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement, along with four other ICE field
offices, for allegedly holding asylum seekers in detention without cause.