Part of the process of freeze-up involves forming the ice foot, an ice accumulation near the high-tide line, where it is frozen to the substrate for the winter.
The ice foot along the main Iqaluit waterfront was surveyed in February 2011 using RTK-GPS to obtain elevations on the surface of the ice.
Along the beaches, the establishment of the ice foot about halfway down the beach face restricted ice pile-up to the lower beach face, well seaward of any infrastructure.
Where the beach extends out onto the tidal flat, the ice foot established near the high-tide line extends far enough down the beach face to protect the upper crest area of the beach (and infrastructure located there) from sea ice pileup (Forbes and Hansom, 2011).
Related monitoring of ice foot growth and dimensions, including year-to-year variability and trends, would complement this analysis.
Ice also plays a protective role in the form of the winter ice foot, which shelters the shore and nearby infrastructure from direct impacts of the mobile ice over the tidal flats.