"Under 3C global average warming, permanent summer ice-free
conditions are likely," concluded the second study, led by Michael Sigmond, a researcher at the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis in Victoria.
"Climate change will alter the extent and configuration of ice-free
areas, yet the distribution and severity of these effects remain unclear," the study says.
They found that there likely are more than enough calories available on land to feed hungry polar bears during the lengthening ice-free
With positive feedback kicking in, the Arctic is likely to be ice-free
year-round by 2025.
"It's an ice-free
port, so we can get the tankers in and out year round.
You can stop feeding goldfish in the ponds but make sure if it ices over that you keep a small area ice-free
to let oxygen in.
Experts now say the Arctic waters could see largely ice-free
summers as early as 2030, and there could be ice-free
conditions for as long as a month by the mid-2020s.
In July's issue of Astrobiology, Eric Wolf and Brian Toon (University of Colorado, Boulder) describe the results of a complex 3-D computer model that suggests that about 2.8 billion years ago, when sunlight was 20% weaker than it is today, an atmosphere with 1.5% carbon dioxide (about 40 times what we have now) and a dash (0.1%) of methane would have produced a virtually ice-free
Earth with mean temperatures close to today's.
Record low extents of Arctic sea ice in 2012 and 2007 have focused scientific and policy attention on climate changes in the High North, and to the implications of projected ice-free
(31) seasons in the Arctic within decades.
? Knock any remaining snow from trees and shrubs to stop them becoming misshapen and keep an area of the pond ice-free
--CoolBox XT Cell Freezing Workstation for ice-free
, power-free sample cooling while preparing stem cells for cryopreservation or assays
Consider installing a pond heater to keep a small area of water ice-free
if you have fish.