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Related to identification: identification mark

defense mechanism

defense mechanism, in psychoanalysis, any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions. Sigmund Freud first used defense as a psychoanalytic term (1894), but he did not break the notion into categories, viewing it as a singular phenomenon of repression. His daughter, Anna Freud, expanded on his theories in the 1930s, distinguishing some of the major defense mechanisms recognized today. Primary defense mechanisms include repression and denial, which serve to prevent unacceptable ideas or impulses from entering the conscience. Secondary defense mechanisms—generally appearing as an outgrowth of the primary defense mechanisms—include projection, reaction formation, displacement, sublimation, and isolation.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


the copying of another's behaviour closely with the desire to be as much like that person as possible.

The concept owes much to FREUD's notion of the resolution of the OEDIPUS COMPLEX through identification with the same-sex parent. This process leads to the internalization of the parent's moral values and the formation of the SUPEREGO.

The use is not always so strict. Identification is commonly used to describe a fleeting feeling of empathy with another person. See also IMITATION.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the recognition of identity, the establishment of the identity of objects.

Criminalistics. Identification is the process of establishing the identity of a specific object or individual through the comparative investigation of the totality of general and particular characteristics for purposes of securing legal evidence. Depending on the subject, object, and method of identification, distinctions are made among investigative, criminal-record, and expert identification.

In investigative, expert, and judicial practice considerable importance is accorded to methods of identifying individuals according to handwriting, physical features, and impressions of hands, feet, and teeth. Equally important are methods of identification of seals, stamps, and typewriters according to their impressions; of weapons according to fired bullets and cartridges; of footwear according to its tracks; of instruments and tools for breaking and entering according to the traces of breakage; of transportation of vehicles according to traces of the tread and of the wheels; and of a whole through the matching of its parts (for example, the parts of a broken automobile headlight, of a torn document).

The results of criminalistic investigation must be expressed in procedural acts having legal force or they will not be admissible as evidence. Presentations for identification and examination by experts are acts of such a nature.


Terziev, N. V. Identifikatsiia i opredelenie rodovoi (gruppowi) prinadlezhnosti. Moscow, 1961.
Belkin. R. S., and A. I. Vinberg. Kriminalistika i dokazyvanie. Moscow, 1969.
Koldin, V. Ia. Identifikatsiia i ee roT v ustanovlenii istiny po ugolovnymdelam. Moscow, 1969.


Psychology and sociology. Identification is the process of emotional and other forms of self-identification of an individual with another person, group, or model and the formation and discovery of individual identity (individuality). The term “identification” was introduced by S. Freud. Identification of the child with either the father or the mother generally serves as the model of identification in psychoanalytic literature. In sociology and social psychology the term has acquired a broader meaning, signifying, on one hand, imitation and imitative behavior and, on the other (particularly in personality research), emotional merging with an object and deep internalization of a norm or pattern of behavior.

Mathematics, technology, and related disciplines. Identification is widely used in mathematics and technology. In algorithmic languages, for example, identification symbols are used to identify operations; in coin machines coins are identified according to mass and shape. Basic tasks of identification include recognition of patterns, formation of analogies and generalizations and their classification, and analysis of sign systems. Identification establishes the correspondence between an object to be recognized and its model—an object called an identifier. As a rule, identifiers are signs for mutually corresponding objects. Identical objects are considered to be equivalent, that is, of identical meaning and significance.


Zinov’ev, A. A. Osnovy logicheskoi teorii nauchnykh znanii. Moscow, 1967.
Bongard, M. M. Problemy uznavaniia. Moscow, 1967.

Chemistry. Identification is the determination of the composition and structure of an unknown compound by comparing the results of analysis, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the compound, with corresponding properties of a known compound. The identity of the unknown compound being examined with the known compound is established by the equivalence of all indexes.


Veibel, S. Identifikatsiia organicheskikh soedinenii. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Ewing, G. W. Instrumental’nye metody khimicheskogo analiza. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from English.)



or presentation for identification, an investigatory action whose purpose is to give a witness—such as a victim, a suspect, or a defendant—an opportunity to recognize from among a group of persons or things the object or person either observed by the witness in connection with a crime that has been committed or known to the witness beforehand. The witness is interrogated ahead of time concerning the circumstances in which he saw the particular person or object, what factors have made it harder or easier to remember, and what features enable him to identify it. For greater reliability, the persons or objects in question or their photographs are presented to the witness grouped with similar objects. Attesting witnesses must be present during an identification. The conduct of the identification and its results are recorded in a document that can be used as evidence in a criminal case. Soviet legislation regarding criminal procedure regulates the manner in which identifications are to be conducted, as in Articles 164–166 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about identification?

The state of one’s self-confidence can be symbolized by the form of identification one has in a dream. A lost or stolen wallet, driver’s license, or passport may suggest confusion about the dreamer’s self-identity or self-confidence.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


(control systems)
The procedures for deducing a system's transfer function from its response to a step-function input or to an impulse.
The tendency of children to model their behavior after that of one or more selected adults.
A defense mechanism in which a person likens himself or herself to someone else.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


i. The process of determining the friendly or hostile character of an unknown detected contact through IFF (identification friend or foe), secondary surveillance radar, or any other means.
ii. Visual recognition of an aircraft type.
iii. Indicating identity with an identification light.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


where two disciples discover identity of Jesus. [N.T.: Luke 24:13–35]
Ulysses’ nurse; recognized him by scar on thigh. [Gk. Lit.: Odyssey]
centurion finally sees Christ as son of God. [N.T.: Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39; Luke 23:47; Christian Legend: Hall, 193]
recognized by Iphigenia at the moment of his sacrifice. [Gk. Lit.: Iphigenia in Tauris, Kitto, 327–347]
Jewish festival; blood of sacrificed lambs placed on houses of the Israelites to prevent death of their firstborn. [O.T.: Exodus 12:3–13]
(fl. 40) recognized as queen on return of lost ring. [Sanskrit Lit.: Abhijnanasakuntala, Brewer Dictionary, 955]
word used by Gileadites to identify Ephraimites who could not pronounce sh. [O.T.: Judges 12:4–6]
recognizes young Jesus as messiah. [N.T.: Luke 2:22–34]
Stanley, Henry
(1841–1904) American journalist finds explorer, Dr. Livingstone, in Africa (1871). [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 263]
bow Penelope recognizes husband by his ability to bend Ulysses’ bow. [Gk. Lit.: Ulysses]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The assignment of an identifier such as a username for a person or a name for a computer or network device. See identifier.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
exchange-traded bonds of Public Joint-stock Company Moscow United Electric Grid Company with Issue Identification Numbers 4B02-01-55039-E-001P and 4B02-02-55039-E-001P;
On stress, the court said that even under the best viewing conditions, high levels of stress can diminish an eyewitness' ability to recall and make an accurate identification. It may be noted 'while moderate levels of stress improve cognitive processing and might improve accuracy, an eyewitness under high stress is less likely to make a reliable identification.
The more that identity perceptions are widely shared and densely articulated by members, the stronger the workgroup identity becomes (Cole & Bruch, 2006), and, as a result, the stronger the potential for workgroup identification. Thus, we made the following proposition:
Moreover, it is imperative to ensure that, after their arrest, the suspects should be put to identification tests as early as possible and such suspects should preferably not be remanded to police custody in the first instance and should be kept in judicial custody till the identification proceedings are held, the guidelines suggest.
The second is the contextual justification for harnessing the advantages of technology to overcome the shortcomings of the identification system.The role of formal identification in any jurisdiction cannot be overplayed.
On Monday, Sar Kheng posted on his official Facebook page that the implementation of the One Window Service to provide identification services at commune halls in Kep and Kampot provinces boosted the effectiveness of public services.
PSN is a randomly generated, unique and permanent identification number for each individual, to be incorporated in all identification systems of government agencies.
"There is therefore no basis at all for the apprehensions about the Phil-ID (Philippine identification system), unless of course that fear is based on anything that borders to illegal," he added.
(29) A showup identification conducted on the eve of trial outside the courtroom, long after the alleged crime occurred, would not be admissible if defense counsel attended the identification procedure and cross-examined the witness.
The Electronic Identification Bill will enter into force six months after its publication in the State Gazette.
exchange-traded bonds of the public joint-stock company Mining and Metallurgical Company Norilsk Nikel with identification number of the issue 4B02-05-40155-F;

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