In every case, the organic carbon particles were found in inclusions within igneous minerals
. "The only way it could get there is if it was present in the original magma," says Herd.
He describes how the earth's crust and mantle evolved and how magma continues to be generated, then covers magmas and igneous rocks, crystal-liquid relations, igneous minerals
and their textures, the mechanisms and effects of magmatic intrusions and their expression across a variety of terrain, basalts and magma series, oceanic magmatism and flood basalts, magmatism at convergent plate boundaries, granitic plutons and siliceous ignimbrites, and the relation of magmatism to the continental interiors.