In this position, the ES (paraspinal muscles: multifidus, longissimus, and iliocostalis
), which is contained within the paraspinal retinacular sheath, was identified, and the probe was then moved laterally to identify the QL, located below the ES and the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and superficial to the psoas muscle.
The aim of this narrative review was to determine, based on existing literature, normal and abnormal imaging parameters of paraspinal muscles (transversospinales, rotators, multifidus, and semispinalis) and the erector spinae (iliocostalis
, longissimus, and spinalis) and their association with spinal degenerative features (disc degeneration, facet joint osteoarthritis, etc.) and LBP.
(Paul Li K F., Takano K., Johnson M G., 2011) thinks that the muscles of the core region are composed of 29 muscles, mainly including the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, tensor fascia lata, Iliocostalis
, biceps femoris, psoas iliac, and erector spinae.
, mientras que la hipoaxial esta reducida.
Individual muscles were classified by function: (1) trunk flexor: RA; (2) trunk extensors: QL and low-back extensor group (LB Ext) including the multifidus, longissimus, and iliocostalis
; (3) lateral flexors: EO, IO, and TA.
The left intercostal space between rib 6 and 7 and the paraspinal musculature (rhomboids major, spinalis thoracis, longissimus thoracis, iliocostalis
thoracis, multifidus thoracis) from T4 to the iliac crest were tender to palpation with increased myofascial tension, especially on the left.
* The spinal extensors: deep muscles--erector spinae: spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
, which inserts between the spinous and the transverse processes, its main role being to hold up the spine and ensure its stability; intermediate muscles: serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior inferior; superficial muscles: rhomboideus minor; these muscles are responsible for the movement.
Try to capture as much of the lateral aspects of the thoracolumbar aponeurosis, iliocostalis
lumborum, and quadratus lumborum, with each successive stroke moving deeper and slower.
(2002) found that healthy subjects had higher activation of multifidus and iliocostalis
lumborum during strength training than sub-acute LBP patients.
Subjects with LBP also produced significantly lower force values (during isometric contraction) in the lumbar iliocostalis
and the longissimus than those without pain (Candotti et al., 2008).
The upper erector spinae consist of the thoracic fibres of iliocostalis
lumborum and longissimus thoracis.
Differences in electromyographic activity in the multifidus muscle and the iliocostalis
lumborum between healty subjects and patients with sub-acute and chronic low back pain.