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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.



A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
References in periodicals archive ?
The faith of ilioinguinal nerve after preserving, cutting, or ligating it: an experimental study of mesh placement on inguinal floor.
Ilioinguinal nerve excision in open mesh repair of inguinal hernia-results of a randomized clinical trial: simple solution for a difficult problem?
One of the mechanisms responsible for this chronic pain may be the damage to the ilioinguinal nerve passing through the inguinal region.
Ravichandran D et al evaluated the differences in the incidence of pain between the ilioinguinal nerve 'preserved' and 'divided' sides and did not find any significant difference in the pain between both sides.
We performed wide resection of the ilioinguinal nerve. Zannoni M et al found that the prophylactic wide resection of selected segments of inguinal nerves, despite the apparent paradox of greater tissue damage appeared more effective than simple section at preventing postoperative inguinodynia, given both the lower incidence and the faster resolution of painful symptomatology.
The numbers of stained nerves among subcostal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves were compared between conventional and alternative approaches using the Mann-Whitney U test.
The subcostal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves were mostly involved, and there was no statistically significant difference between conventional and alternative approaches (U = 10.500, P = 0.690).
Whiteside and coauthors (13) dissected eleven fresh frozen cadavers and located the entrance and termination points of 13 iliohypogastric and 16 ilioinguinal nerves. The authors concluded that there is great variation in the course of these nerves and surgical incisions or trocars placements below the level of the anterior superior iliac spine have the potential for ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric injury.
The nerve supply to these muscles is derived from the lower thoracic nerves, via the lower intercostal, subcostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves (2).
It is possible to selectively block the subcostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves where they lie between the tranversus abdominus and internal oblique muscles, by performing a transversus abdominus plane (TAP) block (3).
They proposed and showed that a higher approach (1 cm cephalad to the ligament), aiming to block femoral, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous as well as the higher iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, gave better analgesia, as evidenced by reduced morphine consumption at 12 and 24 hours, compared with femoral nerve block.
The upper branch then divides into the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves. The lower branch forms the genito femoral nerve with a contribution from L2 nerve root.