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in art, a kind of visual trickery in which painted forms seem to be real. It is sometimes called trompe l'oeil [Fr.,=fool the eye]. The development of one-point perspectiveperspective,
in art, any method employed to represent three-dimensional space on a flat surface or in relief sculpture. Although many periods in art showed some progressive diminution of objects seen in depth, linear perspective, in the modern sense, was probably first
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 in the Renaissance advanced illusionist technique immeasurably. It was highly developed in the baroque period; Caravaggio's bowls of fruit included insects to enhance verisimilitude. American masters of trompe l'oeil include William M. HarnettHarnett, William Michael
, 1848–92, American painter, b. Ireland. He emigrated to Philadelphia as a child; he first learned engraving and then studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the National Academy of Design and Cooper Union.
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 and John F. PetoPeto, John F.
, 1854–1907, American painter, b. Philadelphia. Largely self-taught, Peto worked in the exacting style of trompe l'oeil illusionism perfected by William Harnett.
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imitation of the visible world in works of visual art; the creation of an impression of really existing objects and space.

Illusionism presupposes the visual effacement of the barrier between the conventional world of representation and actuality and their overlapping active interaction. It calls for the visual substitution or seeming destruction of the material substance (of which the work itself consists)—the flatness of the wall or the painting. Illusionism first appeared in the paintings of antiquity, played a noticeable role in Renaissance art, and became one of the main principles of monumental decorative baroque art (in baroque interiors the concrete architectural space merges with the illusory painted space that stretches into infinity). Illusionism is also seen in easel works—for example, in oil paintings, more rarely in graphics like the black and white “trick” still lifes of the 18th century and in F. P. Tolstoi’s watercolors in Russia.



a circus and variety art based on the use of such stage props as boxes with false bottoms and optical devices and on sleight of hand. The magician makes people and things appear and disappear and creates “magical transformations.” The art of illusionism is based essentially on optical illusion.

Conjuring began in antiquity, when priests created illusions. In the 17th and 18th centuries technicians performed “wonders,” based on mechanical devices, at fairs. In the 19th century H. Houdini performed in Paris and developed many of the principles of magic in use today. Twentieth-century magicians stage revues with difficult stunts and illusions, comic effects, and a more theatrical flavor.

Among the best-known magicians abroad are G. Pinetti and B. Bosco (Italy); R. Kefalo, Dante, and Taft (USA); A. and K. Herman (Germany); P. Ch. Sorkar (India); J.-E. Robert-Houdin (France); and Kalanag (Federal Republic of Germany).

Well-known Soviet magicians include E. T. Kio (Renard) and his sons, E. E. and I. E. Kio, Alli-Vad (A. A. Vadimov-Mar-kelov), Kleo Doreotti (K. G. Karasik), M. A. Marches, A. S. Shag, Van Tentau, and A. G. and R. M. Sokol.


Kio. Fokusy i fokusniki. Moscow, 1958.
Kio. Illiuzionisty i “volshebniki.” Moscow, 1959.
Vadimov, A. Iskusstvo fokusa. Moscow, 1959.
Vadimov, A. A., and A. A. Trivas. Ot magov drevnosti do illiuzionistov nashikh dnei: Ocherki istorii illiuzionnogo iskusstva. [Moscow, 1966.]


References in periodicals archive ?
Though stylistically similar in combining illusionistic precision with the effects of blur, the curtains were not however based on photographs.
Another superb painting from the Norton collection is a trompe l'oeil or "fool the eye" illusionistic composition by Jacobus Biltius, dated around 1670.
Given such effective use of frames and illusionistic sets, it was surprising and somewhat disappointing that the production decided to eliminate the Sly frame.
The drapery folds which appear before a shaped window frame are an illusionistic device used in a number of his works.
Within this domestic receptacle are spaces for study, sleeping, washing, living and dining stacked up with the precision of a Chinese puzzle and linked by disarmingly vertiginous flights of stairs seemingly hijacked from the illusionistic imagination of M.
Picasso, of course, never wholly abandoned the idea that a painting was, in some way, a depiction of forms in space; the most obvious difference between Picasso's and Braque's work, during the crucial years of their closest alliance, is that Braque's images exist only in painterly terms; they are about disposing pigment across the surface of the canvas to suggest pictorial events with no other possible existence, while Picasso's painted planes retain a powerful illusionistic presence.
Virginia Scotchie, another ceramic artist, employs visual contradictions through illusionistic surface treatments to provoke thought and contemplation.
However, the much more common and historically more extensive manifestation of this second type of metalepsis displays illusionistic rather than anti-illusionistic effects.
While they may not fool modern eyes jaded by the veracity of the camera, the illusionistic still lifes buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in a.
Excerpts from another video, Painting the Town: The Illusionistic Murals of Richard Haas, prepared students to see the murals.
Popular enhancers for wood, says Smith, are Lincoln Seitzman's illusionistic baskets made of many varieties of wood.
During the 1890s, Bonnard and his colleagues set a goal they would follow throughout their careers: to find a new pictorial expression inspired by traditional mural painting, achieved by harmonious colors, all-over design and matte surfaces, and rejecting the precise subjects, illusionistic modeling and slick finish that typified academic easel painting.