Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Immanentism: immanence
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the subjective idealist trend in philosophy that equates being and knowable reality with the content of consciousness and that denies the existence of reality outside consciousness.

Among those belonging to this trend are the German philosophers W. Schuppe (whose Logic of the Theory of Knowledge, 1878, presented the basic ideas of immanentism), R. Schubert-Soldern, M. Kaufmann, and J. Rehmke. Immanentism expresses the positivist tendency in I. Kant’s theories and critical epistemology in a form very close to empiriocriticism. In the spirit of Kant, imanentism holds that the world of things is not objectively given but constructed by consciousness. However, unlike Kant (but consistently with the basic tendency of neo-Kantianism), it rejects the existence of the “thing in itself,” that is, of objective reality, and thus arrives at the position of subjective idealism. Since, from the point of view of immanentism, all that is knowable exists within the realm of consciousness, that is, is immanent within it, the content of consciousness becomes the only reality. The inner world and the external world, subject and object, are only two spheres that are “possessed” by the soul, two realms of the Ego, of consciousness. Immanentism continues the doctrines of the Swiss empiriocritical philosopher R. Avenarius, the doctrine of principal coordination (or the indissoluble unity of subject and object) and that of introjection.

In order to avoid subjectivism and solipsism, into which immanentism tends to fall because it recognizes only that which is given in consciousness, the immanentists, first of all, assert the existence of other Egos (which is inconsistent, since from their point of view it is impermissible to assert anything outside of consciousness). Second, some of its supporters postulate a generic, or universal, consciousness, which also serves as a criterion for objectivity and truth. In general, immanentism, which claims to eliminate the difficulties connected with the process by which the subject comes to know the object (at the expense of the elimination of that which is known), faces a very difficult problem: the distinction between the objective and true, on the one hand, and the subjective and illusory, on the other. Moreover, the idea of a universal consciousness gives rise to a series of new difficulties (beginning with the determination of its nature); many immanentists try to escape from these by holding such a consciousness to be “divine.” However, the acceptance of god and theological “conclusions” in turn requires a reassessment of the whole conception of immanentism—going beyond the bounds of epistemology into the realm of ontology and metaphysics and changing from subjective idealism to objective idealism.

For its subjective idealism and attempt to take a “third line” in philosophy, immanentism was sharply criticized in Lenin’s Materialism and Empiriocriticism (see Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 18).


Boretskaia, E. “Immanentnaia filosofiia i transtsendentnaia metafizika.” Nauchnoe obozrenie, 1902, nos. 5 and 7.
Leclair, A. K monisticheskoi gnoseologii. St. Petersburg, 1904. (Translated from German.)
Schuppe, W. “Solipsizm.” Novye idei v filosofii, 1913, collection 6.
Rehmke, J. “O dostovernosti vneshnego mira dlia nas.” Ibid.
Bakradze, K. S. Ocherki po istorii noveishei i sovremennoi burzhuaznoi filosofii. Tbilisi, 1960.
Ettinger-Reichmann, R. Die Immanenzphilosophie. Göttingen, 1916.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(35) The "similar explanation of the acquisition of knowledge" articulates the explanatory account midway between externalism and immanentism, which Aquinas also provided on the issues of the eduction of forms to being and of the acquisition of virtue: potentially preexistent forms are actualized by a proximate cause.
But the author justifies his ecological views with reference both to thinking on Supernature and the immanentism of the theory of the Oneness of Being, to which he adds the teachings of the Koran and Muslim tradition concerning nature.
The normal begins to replace the moral with the onset of the belief in technological progress or at least the belief of radical immanentism, that is, that we live in a self-contained world without ultimate purpose.
He, however, gives us very little in the way of clues to determine how far his immanentism extends, and a critic might state that Borges is more Spinozistic and Schopenhauerian than proto-Deleuzian.
Moreover, Bracher is, correctly I believe, insistent that this amounts to no simple transcendentalism in Blake, rather to something like immanentism, for the Reality of the non-existent has to be entertained by the forces of life.
In contrast with the organicist immanentism of hermeneutic or structuralist criticism, the Marxist critic must account for the traces of its own production that the text bears, .for its" incorporation of heterogeneity.
A number of the essays that follow could be seen to engage and question Greene's final turn to "immanentism" by showing how Spenser self-consciously emphasises the impossibility of turning alterity into identity.
Identifying a "current danger" for criticism in the prospect of the "assimilation of psychoanalysis to social constructionism" (129), with its attendant metaphysical bias towards the historical "fact" (wherein a form of realist "immanentism" is only masked by avowals of historical contingency, or of the subject's production through interpellation), Sedinger insists on the validity of Freud's "discovery" of "the negative relation between knowledge and the perception of reality," and on the recognition of the original "failure of representation" by Lacan and by Zizek (124-25, 130-31, 133).
The face, never "really seen" by the person to whom it belongs, becomes--upon reflection--mingled both with the bleak "concept of the land" reflected in shop windows and the "badly hung painting" of the poet's imagination; the result is an image that itself reflects Hartman's unwillingness to give over to either the foregrounded artifice of high modern ism or the organic immanentism associated with confessional poetry.
But how such immanentism does so is not pursued by Davis, perhaps because it promotes a gentle and ethically concerned relational stance in which life is sanctified and guarded from exploitation and harm by the omnipresence of the divine, and this is something a "malignancy" cannot be credited with.
In effect, fundamentalism is an immanentism that is no more acceptable than is an unlimited figural (or derash) interpretive stance.
Today the problem is to avoid the immanentism characteristic of extreme radical and national ideologies, the violence of immanentism run amok.